The American Revolution, also called the United States War of Independence or American Revolutionary War, (1775–83), was a war in which 13 of Great Britain’s North American colonies won political freedom and finally formed the United States of America. The war lasted for more than a decade of increased hostility between the British crown and a large and influential segment of its North American colonies. Until early in 1778, the conflict was a civil war within the British Empire, but afterwards it became an international war as France (1778) and Spain (1779) joined the colonies against Britain.
The Cause of the American Revolution can be divided into three categories:
The revolution had important social causes. The presence of Colonial Legislatures, the ideologies given by the Enlightenment philosophers, and also the good neglect are united all causes of the Revolution.
The legislatures were allowed to charge taxes, assemble armies, and pass laws. Over time, these powers became rights within the eyes of many colonists. Once they were reduced by British people, conflict emerged. The longer-term leaders of America were born in these legislatures. Several of the revolutionary leaders had studied the major writings of the Enlightenment as well as those of Hobbes, John Locke, a philosopher, and also the Baron DE Montesquieu. From these writings, the founders extracted the ideas of the accord, restricted government, the consent of the ruled, and separation of powers. Though British people believed in mercantilism, Prime Minister Solon adopted a text of “salutary neglect.” (K. Martin) This was a system within which the social control of international trade relations was negligent. He believed this inflated freedom and would stimulate worldwide commerce.
Despite the fact that the colonists within the 13 colonies were undergoing the pre-revolution period, they still had cultural customs in their homes. Faith specified in culture played a major roles in people’s beliefs by inspiring people to revolt. A very important person at that time, who additionally impressed several to revolt, was a man named John Locke. His words of knowledge put in place standards and needs for a government that made people have some hope. He explained to people the right meaning of being liberal with his quote- “Power comes from the people”. Around now, families and friends have gathered around to play board games that provides them with cheap parlour recreation. Before and through the American War of Independence, faith (specifically Catholicism) had a good impact on folks. In the geographic region, the main religion was Catholicism. However, over all, there have been totally different protestant branches that play a serious role in their beliefs. Faith and Religion had an impression made at the beginning of the American War of Independence and it has continued. It impressed folks and told them that a revolution was “good” in the eyes of god. Quotes that were normally told to folks to get these beliefs went one thing like this “the principal Seat of the glorious Kingdom that Christ shall erect upon Earth within the latter Days. (PBS)” Folks looked up to leaders now for enlightenment and these leaders inspired them to begin a revolution. John Locke spoke concerning how the aim of any government was to shield the freedom of the people and, if it is not done, then the people have the right to turn the tables in their favour.
The American Revolution was also caused by some political issues, including the increase in control established by the British, the creation of discriminatory laws such as the Proclamation or the Stamp Act. After winning the French and Indian War, King George II wanted to be more strict with the British colonies. One major reason was the fact that Indians still posed a threat to the British government and, second, the French and Indian War, which lasted seven years, had cost Britain a lot of money. The king wanted the colonies to help pay for all those expenses. The first of several laws to accomplish this was the Proclamation of 1763 which forbade the colonists to move westward past the Appalachian Mountains. In 1764, Britain passed a law that prevented the colonies from printing and using their own money. These and several other laws passed to tighten the English reign in the colonies brought out a lot of anger and frustration. But the one law that really angered the colonists was the Stamp Act of 1765, which taxed all kinds of printed paper from wills, licenses, newspapers, diplomas, even playing cards.
Let us understand a few events in sequence:
The 7 Years War (1754-1763)
Between Britain and France over territories of America:
- Spread to 5 continents
- India-3rd Carnatic War
- France defeated-Lost most of its treaty
- Treaty of Paris signed
The French and Indian War
France occupied most of Canada and the Lakes until the late 1750s, but Britain settled in 13 colonies on the east coast. When George Washington, 22, was removed as Virginia’s governor, the war officially began. As a French delegate, he warned against approaching Pittsburgh’s location today. On their way back from a failed and unsuccessful mission, the French were caught up in a French camp in Washington, so they signed with the Frenchman up Joseph Coulomb. Dejumon Viru has been killed. Fearing revenge, Washington ordered the construction of a suitable Fort Nessé City. On 3 July 1754, the Battle of Fort Nessé (known as the Battle of the Great Pastures) became the first war with only General Washington. Surrender … and Washington quickly defeated World War I and defeated General Edward Braddock and Governor William Shirley of Massachusetts, but both failed to stop the French. In 1756, William Pitt of England decided to set up a new business and start funding the war strategy of the French Prussian army and its allies. The mine also repaid the colonies to raise troops to defeat the French in North America.
British Victory in the French and Indian War
Gambling went well. The first British conquest of Lewisburg in July 1758 weakened military morale. They quickly took Fort Frontenac from the French army, and in September 1758, General John Forbes captured Fort Dukane and rebuilt the British fortress named Fort Pitt. There, the French army lost the Battle of Quebec (also known as the Battle of the Plains of Abraham) in September 1759, and new British troops entered Quebec. Montreal collapsed in September of the following year. British troops under George III weren’t just fighting the United States. At the same time, they fought a naval battle to prove the strength of the British, and after defeat in the battles of the Gulf of Lagos and Quiberon in 1759, the French had to stop the British invasion. The British defeated French troops on January 16, 1761 in Guadeloupe, Martinique, Havana, Manila, West Africa and India, and fought the French Pondicherry.
The Treaty of Paris
The Treaty of Paris was signed on February 10, 1763, with France, India, and Britain occupying Canada, Louisiana and Florida (later Spain), eliminating European enemies and officially ending the war. The Paris Agreement returned Pondicherry to France, secured important colonies in the West Indies and Senegal, and Britain’s victory in the French-Indian war made Britain a world power. The defeat of France then encouraged Britain to unite with its American allies during the Revolutionary War.
After the War
- The French threat to the colonies was gone.
- Britain went into heavy debt.
- They planned to tax the Colonists because the war would benefit them the most.
- Colonists were forbidden to settle in newly acquired land.
The British Royal has doubled down on gilts to register for war with British and Dutch banks. George II argued that the war between France and India was beneficial for the colonies to protect their borders and that they had to play a role in repaying the war’s debt. To protect the newly acquired land from future attacks, King George II also decided to establish a permanent British army in the Americas, toneed additional income. In 1765, Congress passed the Stamp Act to pay back the war debt and support Britain. Existence of American soldiers. This was strongly opposed in the first internal period that Congress attributed directly to the colonial pioneers of America. Then it grew up with unpopular town and housing laws that encouraged other colonies who believed there would be no taxes without their representatives. A correspondence committee was also formed to spread word from people to people. The British military response to colonial unrest would eventually lead to the American Revolution. So, along with the abolition of postage stamps, the Declaration Act (1766) enacted by the British Parliament provides the same powers of the British Parliament as in the United States and Great Britain. Then came the following-
Townshend Act 1767
- Charles Townshend-Chancellor of the Exchequer
- Suspended New York’s legislature
- Taxed essential goods—Tea,paper,glass,paint,lead
- Power to British authorities to search any building
Then came the Tea Act 1773
- Lord North, new PM of Britain, removed all taxes except on TEA(mainly to benefit EIC)
- Protestors refused to let ships laden with tea harbours/ports
- The Governor of Massachusetts, Hutchinson, declared he would have ships unload in British harbour.
This led to the Boston Tea Party (16th Dec, 1773). The group led by Samuel Adams boarded the ship and dumped tea worth 10000 pounds in the water.
As Retaliation, the Britishers passed the “Intolerable Acts 1774”
- Public meetings in town halls are closed
- Boston port closed
- Compensation demanded for the dumped tea
- Quebec Act-Extended boundaries of British-ruled Quebec
- In response, the patriots started training militias for the looming fight with the British.
Between 1774 and 1789, the Continental Congress served as the 13 colonies of the United States and the government of the United States since. The first Continental Congress of colonial representatives was convened in 1774 in response to a series of actions by the British government against colonialism to counter new tax rates. The Continental Conference was held after the onset of the American Civil War (1775-83) in 1775. In 1776 he took an important step, declaring America’s independence from Britain. In the years that followed, Congress approved the first national constitution, the federal clause. The states under the title of this federation were governed until replaced by the current U.C. constitution in 1789.
Hostilities break out-The American Revolutionary War begins
By April 1775,fighting started(Lexington and Concord)
- The continental army was led by General George Washington.
- They had support and controlled the countryside,while cities were bitterly contested.
- King George III was petitioned in July by the Congress to stop oppressive laws and avoid full-blown war, but he declared the congress as traitors.
- Many Colonists-rich traders in cities benefitting from trade policies-still favoured British rule. They were called Loyalists.
- Meanwhile, a pamphlet written by Thomas Paine was widely circulated in 1775-76.
- It advocated for INDEPENDENCE in simple language with persuasive arguments and reasons.
By early 1776,in all 13 colonies, Patriots had overthrown their existing governments, closing courts, and driving away British officials. They had elected legislatures and new constitutions were drawn up. They declared that they were states now, and not colonies.
2nd Continental Congress
On 4th of July, 1776, The Declaration of Independence was adopted at Philadelphia.We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal. . . .” quoted “Thomas Jefferson”.The 2nd Congress oversaw the war effort and the Patriots were soon supported by the French empire, which nearly bankrupted itself supporting the Americans. Spain and the Netherlands also supported Americans.
The War ended with the Treaty of Paris being signed in the year 1783.
- The War ended officially by signing this Treaty
- American independence recognized by Great Britain
- Around 100 thousand soldiers died fighting, mostly due to disease.
Significance of the War
- Independence of USA-Nationalism
- A different type of state formed-mass-based, not leader based-Republic
- Anti-imperialist nation
- A blueprint for uniting people for a cause
- Ideas of enlightenment found in real world application
- Inspired/led to other revolutions, especially French and Latin American ones.
- Later, the British Empire changed its policies the world over- Pitt’s India Act 1784, Cornwallis’s reforms in India is one such example.
Although there were some criticisms of the American Revolution:
- No deep change in society(like the French Revolution)
- No Universal Rights-only for men holding property(15-20% of total population)
- No rights to slaves(30% of population) or women
- Power was taken from rich white Englishmen and consolidated into rich white American men.
- Ideas were very strong but policies/implementation were weak.
Then the US Constitution came into the picture:
- First written constitution of the world(1789)
- Ideals of Liberty, rule of Law
- Natural rights of men-Bill of Rights
- Separation of powers-Montesquieu
- System of checks and balances
The American Revolution had a socio-cultural impact not only on the United States of America but also the world at large because of its representation of independence.