A Review of King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa

Adam Hochschild’s Take on the Story of the Congolese Conquest

King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa (Mariner Books 1999) by Adam Hochschild details the ways in which King Leopold II of Belgium established the colony of the Congo Free State.  Hochschild presents Leopold as a cunning leader with the ability to manipulate both his allies and his enemies in the interest of his political motives.  Through his description of Leopold’s ruthless political strategies. Hochschild provides an analysis of the King’s acquisition of this African region, his eventual loss of the colony, and the enduring holocaust of the Congolese despite the prosperity of the ivory and rubber markets.  To do so, Hochschild draws upon several key primary source documents. Using them as sociological and anthropological proofs for his arguments.

King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa: Hochschild, Adam: 9780618001903: Books - Amazon.ca
The cover of the book in review. It is highly recommended for its captivating account of the tragic colonization of the Congo by the Belgium king, Leopold. Credit: The Belgium King, Leopold

Throughout the book, Hochschild provides detail and historical context regarding the individuals’ involved in Leopold’s claim to the Congo.  More specifically he provides evidence of the social, political, and economic circumstances that Leopold took to his advantage to ensure personal prosperity in his colonization efforts.  While Hochschild’s high-spirited, somewhat emotional language sometimes distracts from his main arguments, this book is highly recommended.  Overall, it offers a considerate account of the circumstances that define Leopold’s reign over the Congo Free State and its lasting sociological, anthropological effect.

Belgian Congo | History & Facts | Britannica
Leopold’s stronghold in the Congo left long-lasting effects on its native population in ways that have hindered development, perpetuated conditions of poverty, disease, and malnutrition, and fuelled a stigmatized and prejudiced view of the ‘Third World.’  As with many colonies, the Congo remained a Belgium fixture well after Leopold lost personal hold of it. Credit: Britannica

How King Leopold Acquired the Congo

In the first half of the book, Hochschild argues that Leopold was able to claim the Congo because he made his efforts appear philanthropic.  In fact, Hochschild argues that it is Leopold’s ability to manipulate leaders across Europe and in the United States into believing that his efforts in the Congo were entirely motivated by humanitarian pursuits that he was able to obtain the Congo as his own, personal colony.

Hochschild presents this argument by detailing the various efforts that Leopold pursued to develop his public image as a patron of exploration into the African region.  Leopold first put this into practice during the Geographical Conference held in Brussels in 1876.  Although the objective of the conference was to determine which European leaders would extend their colonial powers throughout Africa. Leopold subliminally sought to identify which leaders had intentions of obtaining regions along the Congo River Basin, which he aspired to claim for himself.

THE DARK HEART OF KING LEOPOLD II OF BELGIUM Kevin P. Dincher Osher Lifelong Learning Institute at CSU East Bay. - ppt download
A synopsis of the conference, where Leopold first established his ‘humanitarian’ persona. Credit: Slide Player

To fabricate this philanthropic image. Leopold ensured that the discussions at the Geographical Conference were focused on abolishing the Arab Slave Trade (42-3).  As a result, it was decided that various infrastructural developments would be necessary for Europeans to establish a presence in Africa. Thus prevent the continuation of Arab slave dealings.

Conveniently, Leopold convinced the chair of the conference. Russian geographer Pyotr Semenov (1827-1914), to have most of those developments situated along the Congo River Basin. More than that, it was decided that Brussels would be the centre of operations for the newly established International African Association. With Leopold recognized as its first chairperson (45).

With this historical context, Hochschild begins to lay his proof for the argument that it was Leopold’s humanitarian persona that facilitated his acquisition of the Congo.

Pyotr Semyonov-Tyan-Shansky - Wikipedia
A photo of Pyotr Semenov. Leopold was always strategic when selecting allies to aid him in his efforts in attaining the Congo. Like Semenov, his allies and aides were always influential enough to get work done, but not astute enough to pick up on Leopold’s charades or realize that Leopold was using them for his own interests. Credit: Wikipedia

Hochschild subsequently details Leopold’s tactful allocation of allies, of which the most prominent was Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904).  An avid African explorer, Stanley had a traumatic childhood. Having been admitted to the Asaph Union Workhouse in Wales and eventually fleeing to New Orleans (21-4).

Most facts about Stanley are convoluted. As he frequently added embellishments about his life in discussion with others and in many of his published books. Largely in embarrassment of his ‘bastard’ origins (25).  Hochschild therefore notes that Leopold took advantage of Stanley’s fragile sense of identity to convince him that exploring the Congo. On the King’s behalf, would bring him fame and personal acclaim.

Henry Morton Stanley - Wikipedia
Another ally of Leopold, Stanley, was able to get Leopold access to the precise region in which he desired to establish a colony, yet never realized that Leopold was using him as a means to achieving his goals and not as an equal. Credit: Wikipedia

Leopold’s interest in Stanley was first sparked in 1877 because Stanley had become the first person to cross the African continent.  Stanley eventually accepted to work under a contract for Leopold and to explore the regions where the King hoped to establish his colonial headquarters (60).

Hochschild describes Stanley’s explorations as essential to Leopold’s acquisition of the Congo for two major reasons.  Firstly, he discovered that the Congolese did not have a unified military defence because they were divided into many, small tribes.  Secondly, because the tribes were not united, the region did not have a single, centralized government (62).

These discoveries were used to support Leopold’s claim that the Congolese had to be civilized.  Stanley subsequently established a series of treaties with the village chiefs in the regions he visited.

List of ethnic groups of Africa - Wikipedia
Not only is the African continent commonly mistaken as a single country. But it is still often referred to as a homogenous mass of land with a homogenous population. In reality, it is extremely ethnically, religiously, and culturally diverse. Now, as in the time of colonization, North Americans and Europeans have often failed to regard this continent’s rich history of tribalism and factionalism.  Like Leopold, other colonial leaders blatantly disregarded this state of diversity.  Credit: Wikipedia

The treaties deceivingly detailed Leopold’s right to exercise trading monopolies without the chiefs’ knowledge (71-2).  Meanwhile, he boasted the potential for free trade as he lobbied for his cause back in Europe, hoping other nations would invest in new markets in the region (65).

Congo Free State - Wikipedia
Leopold not only deceived natives of the Congo, but other European leaders, who genuinely believed his efforts were philanthropic. Credit: Wikipedia

Creating a Philanthropic Image: Leopold’s Key Tactic in Acquiring the Congo

Another key aspect of Leopold’s acquisition of the Congo. As detailed by Hochschild, is his creation of the International Association of the Congo.  The association was designed to oversee and regulate Leopold’s political activities in the region.  Hochschild points out that it is no coincidence that the association bears so much resemblance in name to that of the International African Association, established in 1876.

In fact, the creation of the International Association of the Congo confused both the general public and European leaders into believing that Leopold was merely establishing a network of resources to develop the Congo region and liberate the Congolese from the Arab Slave Trade.  In reality, Leopold was pursuing a complete takeover of the region and holocaust of the population and not merely a ‘humanitarian,’ ‘civilizing’ mission (which is problematic in and of itself in any case) (65).

The Congo "I do not want to risk...losing a fine chance to secure for ourselves a slice of this magnificent African cake.”--Leopold II Belgian Congo. - ppt download
The association helped establish clearer ‘borders’ for European colonies, including Leopold’s Congo, albeit in disregard of existing tribal and ethnic divides among natives. Credit: Slide Player

Perhaps most crucially, Hochschild calls attention to the efforts Leopold employed to have his claim to the Congo validated, with first country to declare recognition for his colony being the United States.  The process was facilitated by the lobbying efforts of General Henry Shelton Sanford (1823-91) (58).

Sanford became one of Leopold’s most crucial allies, lobbying several senators into supporting Leopold’s cause, which he described as a purely humanitarian initiative.  Sanford was also adamant that in exchange for full recognition of Leopold’s claim to the Congo, the United States would earn the right to buy land in the region and engage in free trade (78).

Henry Shelton Sanford - Wikipedia
One might think that with its own history of slavery and successful calls for independence, that the United States would not have endorsed colonization as it did, but this was evidently not the case, with the country seeking to profit in its own right from expansion abroad and hoping to have a share in Leopold’s growing industries in the Congo in specific. Credit: Wikipedia

Moreover, Sanford supplied copies of the treatises that Stanley had signed with many Congolese chiefs, which, to Sanford’s ignorance, conveniently omitted the sections detailing Leopold’s trade monopolies.  Most importantly, Sanford’s lobbying efforts denounced the Arab Slave Trade and emphasized the ways in which Leopold’s claim to the Congo would cultivate development in those regions (79).

East Africa′s forgotten slave trade | Africa | DW | 22.08.2019
An often forgotten part of history is the horrific Arab slave trade that impacted African populations immensely.  Leopold wanted all foreign influence out of the Congo region such that he might reap the benefits of its industries entirely by himself. Credit: DW

The Role of the United States in Leopold’s Endeavour

By 22 April 1884, the United States fully recognized Leopold’s claim to the Congo (81).  In this section of the book. Hochschild describes how Senator John Tyler Morgan of Alabama. Who was the chairperson of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee and an out-spoken advocate for an initiative to evacuate all black Americans from the country. It became convinced that the recognition of Leopold’s claim to the Congo would be the ideal opportunity to rid the country of its black population (79).  Hence, it was largely due to a resolution in the Senate in 1884. Headed by Morgan, that Leopold’s claim was finally recognized.

John Tyler Morgan - Wikipedia
Unfortunately, individuals like Morgan perpetuated the idea that black Americans were outsiders, a troubling idea that continues to circulate among some Americans and extremist groups today.  Of course, Leopold’s rhetoric about the need the ‘civilize’ the Congolese did not help change this reality either. Credit: Wikipedia

How Leopold Deceived Global Powers

Hochschild then describes the droit de preference that Leopold secured in exchange for French recognition of his colony.  Therein, it was promised that in the event that the Belgians ran out of capital. The Congo would become the property of the French, long-time colonial and political rivals of the British (82).

Additionally, with the lobbying efforts of Gerson Bleichröder, a friend of Leopold. Conveniently, the banker of German Chancellor, Otto von Bismarck (1815-98), Germany too recognized Leopold’s Congo claim, along with the incentive that the colony would be easily accessible to German traders (83-4).  Hochschild therefore outlines the ways in which Leopold was able to manipulate a wide array a people into believing in his cause.

In fact, Leopold’s choice to name his colony the ‘Congo Free State’ was also strategic.  It supported the claim that the colony would be a type of international headquarters for the exchange of African and European goods, duty free, with a promise to ‘civilize’ the Congolese as a result.

The horrific consequences of rubber's toxic past - BBC News
Leopold justified the hard labour and abuse of the Congolese in businesses. Like the rubber trade by arguing that they needed to be ‘civilized.’ This type of rhetoric is still used today and perpetuates prejudices against non-white Asian and African communities, as well as North American Natives groups. Credit: BBC

Hochschild presents this argument in detail. Which allows readers to understand the historical, anthropological context of Leopold’s acquisition of the Congo.  The various examples of Leopold’s manipulation of world leaders and his convenient participation in organizations. Such as the International African Association prove the argument that he created a humanitarian image in order to camouflage his ulterior political and economic motives.

Although Hochschild does enter into tangents as he describes the backgrounds of certain characters, such as his biographical account of Stanley’s early life, or his lengthy description of Leopold’s turbulent familial relations, he likely does so to offer historical context for his argument.  Overall, this can benefit readers who may not be familiar with this period in history.

Congo Free State propaganda war - Wikipedia
This animation depicts the horrific treatment of the Congolese at the expense of Leopold’s efforts to earn big money in businesses like the rubber trade, and, initially, in the ivory trade. Credit: Wikipedia

The Demise of Leopold’s Power in the Congo and his Public Image

In the second half of his account of Leopold’s reign over the Congo. Hochschild details how the King eventually lost his colony.  To do so, he emphasizes that it was ultimately Leopold’s weakened public image. Related to the growing awareness of the holocaust being committed against the Congolese, which led to his demise.

Hochschild presents this argument with the example of one of the first individuals to call attention to the mistreatment of the Congolese, George Washington Williams (1849-91).  Williams was an American who had long desired to liberate black natives of the United States from the social strife that had ensued since the American Civil War (1861-5) (101).

By 1890, he landed in the Congo Free State, where he underwent first-hand experience of the deplorable treatment of the Congolese and subsequently wrote the first official condemnation of Leopold’s colonial practices.  This was soon followed by a plea to his native country in the Open Letter: A Report upon the Congo River and Country to the President of the Republic of the United States of America (109, 111).  Shortly thereafter, the New York Herald dedicated a column to Williams’ cause that even picked up headlines in Belgian newspapers (112).

1890) George Washington Williams's Open Letter to King Leopold on the Congo •
Figures like George Washington Williams represent important pillars of change throughout history. Although their stories can often be brushed over in history books. We must not forget that change happens over time and with voices like these that make bold calls to action against actions like those of King Leopold. Credit: Black Past

According to Hochschild, another important figure whose efforts contributed to the deterioration of Leopold’s public image.  Thus to his eventual loss of the Congo, was American William Sheppard (1865-1927).  He was sent to the Congo on a Presbyterian mission along the Kasai River and became the first black missionary in the colony (164).

Although he was certainly not the first person to see the infamous cleaved hands of innocent Congolese who had been punished for not working well or fast enough. Nor to witness the destruction of villages and homes in the interest of the expansion of Leopold’s rubber trade. His accounts of these atrocities were some of the first to be distributed extensively throughout both America and Europe.

Hochschild emphasizes how Sheppard’s influence contributed to the degradation of Leopold’s public image.  The missionary’s accounts of the utter mistreatment of the Congolese sensitized more of the European and American populations than any other condemnations previously had (165).

William Henry Sheppard - Wikipedia
Sheppard is another notable example of voices of change not only against Leopold, but against these types of regime in general.  From his story, we can draw inspiration for current movements, like BLM (Black Lives Matter). Credit: Wikipedia

After listing several other figures with similar findings to Sheppard, Hochschild notes that the situation reached a point of culmination when a Force Publique Officer, the colony’s military force, murdered Irish-native Charles Stokes (1852-1995).  Stokes had married a native Congolese woman and become a prosperous businessman in the ivory trade with the Afro-Arabs.  However, his work interfered with the Leopold’s own ivory trade and thus prompted his execution (174).  Naturally, newspaper presses in London reacted in complete contempt.

What actions did King Leopold of Belgium commit in Congo that make him evil? - Quora
Leopold’s image declined quickly as Europeans came to realize the state of the Congolese. Even so, many of these nations had their own colonies. Which evokes a sense of irony and hypocrisy on their parts. Yet, their condemnations were important in calling attention to the atrocities committed by Leopold. Credit: Quora

Perhaps the most prominent activist that Hochschild calls attention to is Edmund Dene Morel (1873-1924). A worker at the Liverpudlian shipping company. Elder Dempster, which had the monopoly over the imports and exports of the Congo.  Tasked with analysing the company’s records. Morel made several damning findings.  Firstly, the company’s exporting lists indicated huge quantities of military equipment. Which prompted Morel to question why such significant amounts of arms and ammunition would be needed if not to harm and potentially eliminate the Congolese.

Secondly, the monetary returns that the State had been claiming were far less than the profits that should have been coming in based on the quantity of goods being produced from the ivory and rubber markets.  Lastly, approximately 80% of Congo imports were going to private companies. Which meant that the resources promised to the Congolese according to Leopold’s philanthropic claims were not going to the natives after all (179-180).  Morel published many pieces for the West African Mail and wrote countless articles in French, which were each throughout France and Belgium.

Morel also appealed to missionaries. In the hopes of acquiring direct testimonials that he could publish to further validate his claims (186).  By 1903, Morel secured the issue of the Congolese mistreatment on the English public agenda.  In May, the House of Commons voted on a resolution. Which refuted the inhumane treatment of the Congolese and condemned Leopold’s free trade scam (194).

E. D. Morel - Wikipedia
The bravery of people like Morel in speaking out against powerful regimes. Individuals like Leopold is both striking and inspirational.  His work reminds us that change can happen and people be positive force of change. Even when issues do not affect them directly. Credit: Wikipedia

A final activist and opponent of Leopold worth mentioning is Roger Casement (1864-1916). A Brit who had been working in Africa when he became aware of the horrors being committed against the Congolese.  He speedily requested an expedition into the Congo interior to obtain evidence for his claims.  Casement deduced that the Congolese were being brutally and blatantly massacred. With the goal of producing raw rubber and ivory of Leopold’s trading company (200-1).

By late 1903, Casement ended his investigation. He wrote a report detailing conclusions very much akin to those that Morel had been making since his discoveries at Elder Dempster.  What made his report significant were the graphic accounts provided by both the Congolese and missionaries.  Hochschild draws attention to the report because it marked the beginning of a movement against Leopold that would begin shortly thereafter, with the establishment of the Congo Reform Association in 1904 (203, 207).

Roger Casement: gay Irish martyr or victim of a British forgery? | History books | The Guardian
Casement’s work was essentially the ‘straw that broke the camel’s back’. The degradation of Leopold’s philanthropic image finally coming to head. Credit: The Guardian

Headed by both Morel and Casement. The Congo Reform Association held over sixty public meetings by 1905 and produced a draft resolution condemning Leopold’s actions (214-215).  As pointed out by Hochschild. One reason why their work was so influential was because they publicized graphic photographs and testimonials to prove their claims.  In addition, Morel had connections with a series of newspaper publishers across Europe. Which allowed him to distribute information about his cause efficiently (215).

Organizing Congo Reform - British Humanitarianism and the Congo Reform Movement, 1896-1913
Efforts like those of the Congo Reform Association show that there was a shifting tide against colonialism during this period. Which evidently contributed to Leopold’s public downfall.  While colonial legacies are enduring. The Global South continues to have disproportionate disadvantages to this day. Actions like these remain notable. Credit: E Brary

Additionally, Hochschild calls attention to three other ways in which Leopold contributed to the deterioration of his philanthropic image more directly.  Firstly, at sixty-five, he developed a particular liking for a sixteen-year old prostitute, supposedly named Caroline. Not only was the relationship itself scandalous. But the sums of money he invested in his mistresses’ wardrobe and villas across Europe. This provoked the question as to whether the Congo profits were going to Belgium, or to Caroline (222-3).  Secondly. Leopold had long been investing in vast monuments, lavish renovations at his palace, and on property in the French Riviera. As opposed to Belgian infrastructure (224).  Finally, it grew increasingly obvious that Leopold was heavily in debt, in a deficit of 110 million francs—a factor which led to the Belgian parliament buying him out and seizing the colony in 1908 (259).

Caroline Lacroix - Wikipedia
Caroline Lacroix was a notorious spender for whom Leopold was willing to please, at the expense of his public image. Credit: Wikipedia

Hochschild argues that the primary cause of Leopold’s loss of the Congo was the dilution of his public image.  As in the case of Hochschild’s first argument. His presentation of Leopold’s loss of the Congo is both descriptive and historically contextual.  Although he evokes emotional language in his seemingly personal condemnation of Leopold’s prosperity in the ivory and rubber markets at the expense of the Congolese. The direct testimonials and primary source documents related to the efforts of humanitarian activists. Such as Morel and Casement offer valid proofs for the argument that Leopold’s pomp and blatant disregard for the Congolese lead to the destruction of his once saintly philanthropic image.

The Guilt of Delay, Slavery in the Belgian Congo, Punch cartoon, 1909 Stock Photo - Alamy
Images like these came to be widely circulated throughout Europe and North America. As the realities of Leopold’s regime came to the public forefront. Credit: Alamy

The Atrocities Committed against the Congolese

Furthermore, Hochschild employs several primary source documents to call attention to the holocaust committed against the Congolese.  Three significant sources worth mentioning are a direct testimonial of a village chief. Who partook in the abuses of members of his tribe. A photograph of two children with injured hands, and a Congolese song recorded by a Swedish missionary in 1894.

In the testimonial offered by chief Liamba, from the Malinda village. Hochschild exposes the ways in which Congolese tribal leaders were often forced to succumb to the mistreatment of their own people.  The testimonial goes as follows:

Question: Did M, Hottiaux [a company official] ever you give you living women or     children?

Answer: Yes, he gave me six women and two men.

Question: What for?

Answer: In payment for rubber which I brought into the station, telling me I could eat them. Or kill them, or use them as slaves—as I liked (164).

Herein, Hochschild shows that the rubber trade was designed to enslave the natives from the get-go.  Moreover, the fact that Hochschild employs this particular example demonstrates that even village chiefs. Whether forced to, or willing to earn a profit, took part in the abuses committed against the Congolese.

Yet, it is important to note that in passages such as these, Hochschild is not necessarily blaming the chiefs themselves, but, more broadly, criticizing Leopold’s regime for permanently devastating the region in ways that are still prevalent to this day.

Lasting effects of colonial-era resource exploitation in Congo: Concessions, violence, and indirect rule | VoxDev
Leopold’s infamous rubber trade evoked terror among the Congolese, caused the deaths of thousands. Permanently altered the Congo’s terrain, and has been the source of existing economic hardships. Credit: Wikipedia

Similarly, a photograph in “Chapter Eight: Where there aren’t No Ten Commandments” (115-139) shows the hands of a child. Mola, which are permanently deformed due to their being tied excessively tightly by Force Publique officers.  In the same photo, the hands of a second child, Yoka, are shown to have been cut off by a soldier. Who wanted to collect it as a proof that she had been killed.

Graphic imagery this is often used by Hochschild. To demonstrate the severity of the humanitarian crisis that endured during the period of Leopold’s reign in the Congo.  These legacies have had lasting repercussions on the ability of Congolese to develop their nation and improve their standards of living and quality of life.

Leopold II: Belgium 'wakes up' to its bloody colonial past - BBC News
The photo used in the book, where Hochschild detailed the dire state of Leopold’s rubber trade in the Congo. Credit: BBC

Lastly, Hochschild provides an account from the Congolese themselves. Which is particularly valuable. As he points out, throughout the entire process of Leopold’s acquisition and reign over the Congo. The opinions and needs of the Congolese were never taken into account.  More than that, they ever consulted at the many conferences held in Europe regarding the division of African lands.  Consequently, Hochschild offers readers a song in which the Congolese describe the state of their suffering:

We are tired of living under this tyranny.

We cannot endure that our own women and children are taken away

And dealt with by the white savages.

We shall make war….

We know that we shall die, but we want to die.

We want to die (172-3).

Hochschild purposefully integrates a primary source, in the words of the victims themselves. To highlight that the Congo Free State brought detriment upon its natives. Such that they were willing to die if it meant they would be liberated from their colonial constraints.

A Critique of Hochschild’s Style

With that being said, Hochschild’s writing style certainly contributes to one’s overall understanding of the themes of the book.  In fact, because he includes such a large quantity of primary source documents and offers such comprehensive historical context, readers need not consult secondary sources in order to understand the arguments he puts forth.  Moreover, because he employs quite colloquial language, readers can effortlessly decipher his arguments.

His writing seems to be directed towards more of a popular audience than to academia. Which makes his work widely accessible for individuals who may not have an extensive understanding of the historical and anthropological background of this subject.

Adam Hochschild | UC Berkeley Graduate School of Journalism
Hochschild, the author. Some of his other acclaimed books include: To End All Wars: A Story of Loyalty and Rebellion, 1914-1918. Spain in Our Hearts: Americans in the Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939. Lessons from a Dark Time and Other Essays, among many others.  His account of King Leopold and his efforts in the Congo was been widely acclaimed. Because it is so detailed and historically rich in primary source documents. Credit: HMH Books

It should be noted that while Hochschild’s sometimes emotional language contributes to the popularization and easy readability of his book. It can also take away from the objective perspective that one would think an author would employ in a historical work.  For instance, when he describes the mistreatment of the Congolese and states, “And if Africans were made to help out in the ivory-gathering, why that too, Heaven forbid, was not to make a profit, but to rescue these benighted people from their indolence,” he makes a valid point about the deceitful notion that humanitarian efforts were underway in the Congo.  Yet, he also does so in a seemingly subjective manner. Which exemplifies the ways in which his personal voice often transgresses the facts he is enumerating (118).

Why Hochschild’s Work is Anthropologically Significant

Be that as it may, Hochschild’s book is highly recommended. This is because it offers an acute analysis of the terror that ensued in the Congo during King Leopold II’s reign.  It thus contributes to one’s understanding of modern Western history twofold.  Firstly, it takes into account the suffering of the Congolese. One must applaud Hochschild for his efforts to give them somewhat of a voice throughout his description of their mistreatment.  Secondly, it offers a highly descriptive historical analysis. Which can be interpreted by members of the general public with ease.

For these reasons, this book is highly recommended to any individual who wishes to study a key part of the history of colonialism.  More specifically, it may appeal to a high school audience, interested in delving into anthropological research in particular. Because it presents an accurate historical account, without overcomplicating matters, or using unnecessarily complex language.

Modern Africa Chapter 36. Colonial Legacy…Why is Africa the Way it is??? Africans were dependent upon colonial economic help…even after independence Africans. - ppt download
Learning about colonial legacies is key. If we are to understand how and why countries of the Global South struggle to develop and improve their standards of living. With people like Leopold having had major influence of their current states of affair. Credit: Slide Player

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