The Great Pyramids of Giza
The mesmerizing Great Pyramids were built during the IV dynasty by Pharaoh Khufu. Its entire structure is constructed from limestone and granite blocks, having the measurement of 139m (458 feet) in height and 230m (755 feet) in width, adding into, it’s about 4,500-years-old.
This great structure comes under the seven ancient wonders of the world. Over the past many years, many researchers and excavations have been held, leading to the discovery of many artifacts and hidden chambers.
The three main chambers are located at different altitudes, the sub-terrain chamber, the king’s chamber, and the queen’s chamber and they all are connected by several corridors.
But recently archaeologists and historians with the help of cosmic rays have discovered a previously unidentified hidden chamber, many attempts and theories have been elevated since then.
According to Dodson, the newly discovered void is unlikely to contain any artifacts or any other precious material, as such items have already been found in the burial chamber with a sarcophagus in it.
Instead, his hypothesis focuses on the fact that this might be a “relieving chamber”, which is intended to reduce the weight of masonry pressing down on the Grand Gallery, as similar chambers have been discovered in other pyramids too.
On the other hand, an independent geologist and engineer Colin Reader who has studied these Egyptian Pyramids his entire life, states that this new chamber is far off from the Grand Gallery and hence it’s quite unlikely to serve that purpose.
He also suggests the fact that just like The Grand Gallery leads to King’s chamber, this void might too, lead to a higher and bigger chamber. “You would want to investigate and rule that out,” he says.
In 2007, a new theory speculated according to Brier and French architect Jean-Pierre Houdin suggesting that just like Grand Gallery contributed to the counterweight system, this chamber might play the same role.
However, all these theories are made based on experiments and assumptions. As no one, has been able to get inside that hidden chamber. Locals claim that it’s meant to be closed and there is something inside of it, which was ever intended to see the day of life, cause of which despite advanced technologies and gadgets, people still failed to open that chamber.
During the excavations, the workers claim that with each new excavation they would witness new scratch marks all over the walls surrounding the door of the chamber.
Hence, according to the sayings of the ancient historians, not everything was meant to be seen by the upcoming generations, and we must respect and never unravel the truths and secrets which was never meant to see the glimpse of the day.
The Ancient Egyptian Curse
“Cursed be he who moves my body”, the ancient Egyptian curses have terrified the people of all generations. At starting, it might seem like normal historian messages for the travelers who wander off the desert their entire life, and thieves to prevent them from disturbing the burial grounds of the pharaohs.
But many shreds of evidence and confessions of the people claim that these curses are just mere warnings, the one who disturbs the resting place of the king faces the catastrophe upon them.
Hence, Egyptian curses and mythologies have given people chills to this day itself.
One case itself made its place in history and plagued the minds of all the archaeologists and historians. that is the “The Curse of Tutankhamun Tomb”
“Death shall come on swift wings to him who disturbs the peace of the king” mentioned on the tomb of Tutankhamun, was ignored by the Egyptologist Lord Carnarvon and discoverer Howard Carter when they decided to excavate the tomb in 1922.
The follow-up incidents shook the world, and its tails and incidents are still being studied and analyzed by many Egyptologists.
Within a few months after the Tomb was opened, Lord Carnarvon was reportedly declared dead, cause being blood poising.
Many claimed that he was quite healthy, hence giving rise to uncertainty of such an early death, while others claim that it’s the result of the curse and within a matter of six weeks, the news of “mummy’s curse” spread across the entire world like a pandemic.
Some even claim that at the time of his death all the lights mysteriously went out.
Many hypotheses surfaced related to the cause of his death and the following in the Egyptian curses. Out of which many ruled out and some secured its place in the books of history.
Over a while, some theorists seeking a good scientific explanation regarding Carnarvon’s death suggested that his death might have been linked to toxins within Tut’s tomb.
Since studies claim that some ancient mummies have been shown to carry potentially dangerous poisons on the lid of their coffin or the walls surrounding the tomb, which is known to attack the respiratory system.
However experts dismissed this theory, stating that Carnarvon was already chronically ill even before he started his excavation, and also if it was the poisons, it would have worked faster which contradicted the fact that he died few months after the excavations.
Kingdom of Yam
Anything that sounds mysterious to humans, their soul embarks on a journey to find out its answers, whether it is about a book or artifacts or even a kingdom, yes you heard it right. A mysterious kingdom of yam has stunned many historians, Egyptologists, and archaeologists around the globe.
Its mention has only been in the old books, they have made their living in the old libraries and fantasies of the people, who can only imagine how this kingdom looked like through the texts.
As there has been no solid evidence of its whereabouts, even casting its image is difficult, since no one has ever found it or even if someone did, they are not alive enough to share it with us.
The whole journey to find this mysterious kingdom gave many people sleepless nights.
The only few things which we can tell about this kingdom is that it comes from the tomb façade of Haarkhuf, the governor of Upper Egypt.
Black Genesis, a book written by Robert Bauval and Thomas Brophy, has instances written in it that describe the existence of the kingdom of yam, “Harkhuf took 300 donkeys on a seven-month trek to the fabled Yam, from which he returned with incense, ebony, henkenu perfume, grain, leopard skins, and all kinds of beautiful and good presents.”
The more we dig up about this kingdom, the more we unravel mysterious theories and instead of untangling, we get tangled up more. Since the location of Yam has always been important for scholars because it helps to determine how far into Africa Egyptian penetrated and also to assess the relative size and strength of various Nubian territories during the Old Kingdom.
Studies claim that Harkhuf’s first and second journeys are particularly relevant in locating this ancient land, but still, only predictions could be made since many changes have occurred on the surface of the earth, and despite the advancement of the technology, the researchers faced many complications and new problems with each new solution.
Similar, the Kingdom of Punt, whose depictions have filled the entire books of ancient Egypt couldn’t be located. It is described as the ancient African Kingdom enriched with gold, ivory, and exotic animals that excited the Egyptian imagination.
There is no doubt that Punt existed, there have been countless mentions of it in ancient writings. There’s even a picture of Queen Punt in the Egyptian Temple.
But despite how powerful and important these kingdoms have been, we’ve never found it.
Egyptians believed in the afterlife, which prompted them to the process of mummification. Believing that after the person dies, their soul can renter their own body in the aftermath, because of which they spend hours in preparing the body so that it can be recognizable, which included removing of the internal organs and drying them off, and then placing them in canopic jars, it’s a whole big process which takes months to complete.
These mummified bodies play a major role in various aspects, helping scholars to understand ancient Egyptian history and also attracting a vast number of tourists across the globe just to see a glimpse of it.
There has been one specific mummy whose expression didn’t depict the normal procedure of mummification, it more or less depicted the agony, thus giving a new mystery case to the researchers to solve.
Often known as “Screaming Mummy”, this agonized mummy was discovered in 1886, its expression wasn’t the only thing that stands out, but also, its organs had been completely intact which contradicted the actual process of mummification.
Many hypotheses again started surfacing, some claimed that it was a case of murder, poisoning, or even a case of being buried alive.
Scholars even started claiming that the mummy looked so anguished: there was some chance he was, in fact screaming at the time of his death indicating he might have gone through some torture or punishment.
During the excavations certain revelations baffled the scientist, “We found this mummy covered in sheepskin” Hawass told National Geographic. According to the minds of ancient Egyptians, covering a person with sheepskin meant that he was not clean, indicating that he did something wrong in his life.
In addition, there was also the absence of a grave marker, which according to the customer would deny him a role in the afterlife. Despite that, he was found buried along with the other members of the royal family.
With the help of the DNA test, a confirmed leading theory started emerging, Hawass stated that he was likely the Prince of Pentewere. He was responsible for the assassination of his father, Rames III, who ruled in the 12th century BC, hence he was sentenced to die and likely to be hanged.
However, with the advancement in technology and over time, all the earlier theories started ruling out, a new theory emerged stating that his cause of death was due to heart attack.
Also, as in rigor mortis, decomposition relaxes the muscles. So, the design of the jaw and its connection to the cranium contributed to the mummies screaming, explaining its agonized expression.
The first known pregnant mummy
Presently while the world is still battling with the pandemic, the process of extracting secrets from the depths of the earth couldn’t be stopped. Recently in April, archaeologists discovered a new mummy.
According to the ancient writings which were mentioned in the coffin lid, the mummy was identified as a Male priest but according to the reports of the X- rays and CT scans, it turns out to be a female who was 6-7.5 months pregnant. The sex of the child is still unidentified.
The remains had been donated to the University of Warsaw in Poland earlier in 1826, only recently the Egyptologist and Archaeologist conducted a detailed analysis because of the reports of the test held.
Earlier it was thought to be the remains of a priest named Hor-Djehuty from ancient Thebes, whose name was scripted onto the coffin.
Experts now have concluded that the reports and analysis done previously must not be done intensely as well as the man who donated the mummy to the museum may have lied about its origin and placed it in a different coffin to make it seem more valuable.
Noticing the pattern, the way the remains were mummified, it seems to be older than estimated as the mummification technique is more sophisticated as compared to other examples from the first century B.C.
During the analysis, the first evidence which came into the light was via computer tomography, which revealed a delicate bone-like structure, and also there was no sign of penis, including the presence of the breasts. The most amazing revelation was the Festus, which was still intact even though the other organs were removed.
“There is still uncertainty as to why it was still left there” claims the experts. According to them, there might have been some religious significance linked to it, since the unborn child didn’t have a soul or maybe because it might have been difficult for them to remove the child at that stage from the mother’s womb without causing any serious damages to the remains.
The experts hope to conduct more experiments and additional research to investigate the cause of death, and whether it was linked to the pregnancy of the women.
With the coming of generations and advancements in technology, we will likely continue to uncover more mysteries from around the world. To do this day itself, people fantasize over Egyptian mysteries and culture and it has become somewhat of a myth, however much of it might have a come from a realistic basis. Archaeological discoveries of ancient civilizations, such as the Egyptians, will uncover more unsolved theories and help us gain more insight into anthropology.