The Lion Gate, one of the two grand entrances of the Upper City. It was flanked by two rectangular towers and had a inner and an outer doorway, both parabola-shaped, and once furnished with pairs of wooden doors.

Ancient Civilizations: Evidence of High Technology At Hattusa In Turkey

Would you like to discover the technological brilliance of our ancestors and visit Hattusa? These ancient remains of the capital of Hittite are known to have originated around the bronze age. The Anatolian heartland of Corum is the location of Hattusa. The civilians of Hittite demonstrate unique architectural skills and advanced metallurgical engineering skills.

Royal Castle of Hattusa

History of Hattusa

The kingdom of Hattusa lies between Syria and the Ethiopian river. Its nearness to the Black Sea can be traced as endurance. This capital city of Hattusa was discovered far back in 1834. But, we can see they enlisted in 1986. Between the periods a lot of excavation took place. Evidence of chariots, horses, and military regimens can be found. Their used drafting tools and weapons for war were found. Moreover, metallurgy became prominent. Many more surprises are yet to come as excavation continues. As of now, we can make out the lifestyle of people and the way they communicate. 

In the 14th century BC, the letter Amarna refers to the Hittites who were Egyptians. superpower equivalent to Mitanni, Babylonia, and Assyria during the ancient time. It is said that Hattusa was created earlier after the arrival of Hittite. It remains a mystery how the Hittite kingdom came into existence. The indigenous people called Hatti were the real founders of Hattusa Anthropology.

The exact location of Bogazkoy(Hattusa) in north-central Turkey is a bit confusing. Yet the Hittite managed to capture the northern hills, Though the area was troublesome for political unrest yet rich in metal resources. The north-central Tukey, Taurus, and Amanus are wealthy in metals as evidence.

Hattusa was established as a city in the 3rd millennium BC. It was a small city among many others in that region. Kanesh is one such city identified from research. In 2000BC, Assyrians established trading colonies. In texts written in that period, Hattusa anthropology has been mentioned. The end of Hattusa city can be stated in around 1700BC.

The king of kussara, Anitta is known to have conquered, grazed, and cursed Hattusa simultaneously. No further city or kingdom can be initiated at the same location. However, the city was resettled by Hatushili in mid or 17th century BC. The term Hatushili refers to a person who belongs to Hattusa. However, because of lack of information, it cannot be firmly claimed that Anitta and Hatushili are the same people who rebuilt Hattusa after destruction.

The City Walls of Hattusa

More About Hattusa

The origin of Hittites has not been identified so far. They communicated in the Indo-European language. Historians believe they immigrated from Central Anatolia. It is assumed that in the second half of the 3rd century they followed the route via Caracas. The location for Hattusa was found ideal because of the rock available in the vicinity. The city can be easily fortified by the use of stones. Secondly, a small river was discovered which became a water source.

What Evidence of High Technology is Found at Hattusa?

  • It feels like bowing to the civil/structural concept of the ancient Hittites constructors. In modern times, we see a vast advancement in building technology. Today’s monuments and buildings in urban cities are mostly constructed with cement, concrete, and bricks. To strengthen the constructed structures, various methods are used before execution or while constructing. For example, soil report, feasibility, underground layouts, piling, Stadd, etc., and complex processes.
  • But it is astonishing how building techniques were so sound in ancient times. The remains are almost intact. The Hittite people had immense scientific knowledge and organizational strategies. The conversion of hilly terrain into a city must involve high ancient technology of building science.
  • Metallurgy became very vital. Demand for metals increased. It was a bronze age in Hattusa. So, to strengthen the military regimen, more resources were required. Not only swords, armor, chariot wheels for military supplies, but also metallic figurines for decoration.
  • Last but not least, it raises questions about how the resources get identified. At present, a lot of data and digital analogy is used before concluding any result. But ancient technology provides evidence. For example, Sungurlu was found fertile for agriculture but it isn’t possible without analysis. That means Hittite must have some innovative technology to detect sources.
The City Walls of Hattusa

What all Hittites Used to Create Hattusa

The building materials used by Hittites in building Hattusa were stones, mud bricks (unburnt), mud, and timber. To make the base stronger, the foundation was made of stones. The stones were sized with flat tops. Some stones were drilled through for the provision of water. The stones resemble the kiln bricks we find today. 

There was no cement in ancient times. But the cutting stones to fit one over another are evident, Above the stones, mud bricks were placed. The roofs were made of timber. But with time, the mud portion and timbers got destroyed. However, the Archaeologists tried to restore part of the wall using the same techniques used by the Hittites.

Hattusa was recognized as a metallic city. There was a large influx of metal used in various items. The Hittite kingdom was prompted to collect resources to make the imperial capital much more powerful to respond to wars with neighboring supremos of power. The need for more metal supplies was felt which led to the development of industries in mountainous areas starting from North hills central and Taurus hills to the south. These industries were largely were involved in shaping activities.


Structures In Hattusa

Now, you can realize the powerful Hittites were in comparison to others in the region. While Hattusa became their imperial capital. Sturdy stone structures were built and monumental buildings got constructed. The evidence of ancient high technology at Hattusa can be seen in relics left today. For instance, the 8km long wall protecting the city, further the upper part of the city fortified by a dual wall. The monumental buildings hundreds in numbers were built simultaneously. 

Signs of significant urbanization can be seen in structures of the ancient city of Hattusa. You can observe various types of construction. There are five gates to the wall. Three are decorated and ornamental in construction. They are Lion’s gate, king’s gate, and sphinx gate which are the main sources of attraction for most travelers. Besides, the great temple in the lower part of the city remained almost intact. Back in the 13th century BC, the grand temple was built. The biggest temple is found in Hattusa.

Back in 2016, two secret tunnels were found by archeologists. Each 300 meters long. Archaeologists assume some sacred functions took place within the tunnels. That’s because they found a tablet denoting the king recommending the priest what all is needed in the ceremony.

The King’s Gate of Hattusa

Wonder in Hattusa

The mysterious large green rock in Hattusa has added to the attraction. This rock is quite uncommon among stones available here. Moreover, the locals believe the stone is sacred, naming it as “wish stone”. The stone made from nephrite or serpentine has no record of usage. The purpose of the stone present at Hattusa remains unknown

The City Walls

Abandonment of Hattusa

Following the rise of Assyrians, by the middle of the 13th century BCE, the Hittites kingdom started to fall. Further, raids by enemies like Kaska and sea people. By the middle of the 12th century BC, the Hittites kingdom was lost. In 1190BC Hattusa was captured by Kaskas. Not only they sacked Hattusa, they burnt it as well.

For the following 400 years, Hattusa remained abandoned till Phrygians resettled Hattusa. But Hattusa didn’t regain its past glory. Though the settlement existed through Hellenistic, Roman, or Byzantine periods. The glorious reign of Hittites was lost completely by that time. It could be traced in Egyptian manuscripts and the Bible. It was courtesy Bogazkale, traces of the Hittite kingdom and Hattusa were rediscovered in the 19th century i.e.modern time.

Travel Guide to Hattusa

  • Bogazkoy, a modern village lying to the northern side of the city, leads the road to visitors. The lower city is the oldest part of the city. Spread over an area of 1.25×0.5 sq. km this lower city also housed the temple, was founded by almighty Hattusily king. This part of the city is the oldest and was established in 1650BC. This part was fortified previously. However, the visitors can view the stone portion only For the visitor’s purpose and their research purpose, the archaeologists have recreated the original way it had been. The temple in the lower city was dedicated to Sun God as well as God of Weather. 
  • The upper city can be reached by the visitors if they climb southwards. You can find towers at every 20m interval. Originally the towers were 8 to 10m high. Beautifully curved gates like kings gate, lion gate, sphinx gate, etc. Visitors can view the original creations in situ in many places, But the originals of great value have been shifted to the museum. In Ankora the remains have been restored in the Museum of Anatolian Civilization. Only copies can be seen by the visitors. 
  • The Foundation of another 30 temples can be found in the upper city. That is why the city is also called the land of thousand Gods. Secret chambers are present under the temples which bear evidence of ancient Hattusa cultures like tablets, stamps, and seals. Archeologists claim they trace back to Hittite city plan Epic of Gilgamesh from the temples. If you see the land map of the upper city, it is like an off-center sanctuary. Temples on the sides of the road. Visitors can view the tunnel, sphinx gate, and Yerkapi Ramparts which are splendid to view from the highest viewpoint. The sacred cella lies underneath
  • If you visit the Hattusa site, you can well understand a lot about Hittite culture. Besides sacred rituals, the ancient economic, administrative, and official duties were performed happily. Moreover, uncovering the textual inscriptions in one of the temples has led to still further knowledge about the ancient people. Archeologists were able to derive a lot of conclusions about Hattusa city.
  • The Yerkapi fortification can be viewed at the highest southernmost point. The man-made sphinx gate draws attraction. Here again, you can get evidence of ancient high technology at Hattusa. Most popular is the Yerkapi tunnel. The tunnel is 83 meters long. It starts from a 10ft rampart and ends at the center of the city. The end of the tunnel has been disguised. It is still a mysterious destination for visitors. But aesthetically it may be assumed the tunnel was not meant for military activities but used for ceremonies.
  • Within Hattusa limits there were two rock chambers, those were open to the sky. They enclose two limestone rocks each 12meter in height. There is evidence of a waterfall within that area. Before the emergence of the Hittite settlement, the place was considered sacred. A lot of devotees used to offer prayers at this place before this got transformed into a party spot. The Hittite superiors chose this place for a New Year Celebration.
  • The relief sculpture found in Hattusa has been restored as it was. King Tudaliya of the Hittites empire could observe the beautifully carved relies upon bulls, leopards, the double-headed eagles, and winged lion demons respectively. Moreover, a divine vision of Hittite soldiers in attire marching. The king declared the place holy among the holiest. Today the visitors can find a chamber with twelve soldier deities marching with swords in hand against the wall. The place bears a royal cartouche that bears his name.
The Lion Gate

Role of Archaeologist’s

As more excavation is taking place. Archaeologists are trying to uncover more about the ancient city. Clay tablets have been excavated lately. It has been termed the Bogazkoy archive. These tablets bear the evidence of official correspondence. Some tablets showcase legal codes. While others procedures are ceremonial procedures.

  • From the excavated remains the archaeologists were able to guess how the city was and its residents. Expected fifty thousand people resided in Hattusa. The dwellings of the ancient city were made from timber and clay. Over time the houses vanished. Archaeologists expressed their belief that almost 50,000 people lived. The central portion was occupied by one-third of the total population. 
  • Regarding the tablets, the archeologists found different Indo-European languages that are never heard like Hurrian, Hittite, and Luwian. Thankfully they had the conjunction of Assyrian. The archeologists were able to translate to usable language. As a result, the tablets became an archive of mythology, history of Hittites, knowledge of places, rituals, etc. (Samples of these tablets can be viewed at the Museum of Anatolian Civilization in Ankara and Istanbul Archeological 

How to Reach Hattusa

The once capital of Hittite, 200 km east of Ankara lies Hattusa. Bogazkale lies beside the ruins in Hattusa. The bus route world is the best Bogazkale is in Turkey’s Central Karadeniz region. Whereas, if you take a bus from Bogazkale. There are many buses in the route from Sungurlu that can be availed to connect Bogazkale that’s off Samsun-Ankara road. However, bus services connecting Sungurlu and Bogazkale like Dolmus. However, they run irregularly. Not at all a good option for visitors. The case might be different for the locals who are aware of the timings.

Temple of Hattusa

Significance in Anthropology

Hattusa, an ancient city in Turkey, had a glorious past. The place has been realized as a renowned UNESCO heritage site. It was a citadel of Hittite culture and traditions. From excavations, we learn about the high technology used for building structures. Again the concepts of city planning could be seen for example stones and water. Hattusa has been recognized as the oldest city where the peace treaty was signed. The clay tabs contributed a lot to Hittite’s writing. 30,000 tabs represented the past ups and downs of the powerful Hittite kingdom. Today’s mention of Hattusa is present at New York’s United States Building.

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