Anthropology: Brief Sociopolitical Histories of the Three Largest Territories in the World

Russia

Russia is a country from Eastern Europe and North Asia. The largest land area in the world, covering more than 17 million square miles (6.6 × 106 sq mi), and covers more than one third of the land area. Russia expands eleven-time sites, and has borders with sixteen independent nations. It has a population of 146.2 million; and it is the most populous country in Europe, and the ninth most populous country in the world. Moscow, the capital, is the largest city in Europe, and Saint Petersburg is the second largest city and cultural center. The Russian people are the largest Slavic and European nation; they speak Russian, the most widely spoken Slavic language, and the most widely spoken indigenous language in Europe.

Map of Russia
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Eastern Slavs emerged as a popular group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. The medieval period of Rus’ appeared in the ninth century. In 988, it embraced Orthodoxy from the Byzantine Empire, and the integration of Byzantine and Slavic cultures into Russian culture began in the next millennium. Russia eventually disintegrated and was finally annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow in the 15th century. By the 18th century, the nation had become increasingly powerful through conquest, integration, and exploration into the Russian Empire, the third-largest empire in history. Following the Russian Revolution, Russia’s SFSR became the largest and most influential republic of the Soviet Union, the world’s first socialist state. The Soviet Union played a winning role in the Allied victory in World War II, and it emerged as a major power and rival in the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some significant technological breakthroughs in the 20th century, including the first man-made satellite on earth and the introduction of the first man in space.

Tsardum of Russia

Tsar Ivan the Terrible, 19th-century evocation by Viktor Vasnetsov, 1897
credit: https://wikipedia

In advancing the Third Roman Empire, Grand Duke Ivan IV (“Horror”) was crowned the first Tsar emperor of Russia in 1547. The Tsar issued a new code of law (Sudebnik of 1550), established the first body representing the Russian empire (Zemsky Sobor) and introduced local autonomy in the rural areas. During his long reign, Ivan the Terrible nearly doubled the vast territory of Russia by connecting three Tatar khanates (parts of the divided Golden Horde): Kazan and Astrakhan along the Volga River, and the Siberian Khanate in southwestern Siberia. Thus, by the end of the 16th century, Russia expanded into Asia, and it was transformed into a cross-country ski.

However, Tsardom was weakened by Livonia’s long and failed war against the unification of Poland, Lithuania, and Sweden so that they could reach the Baltic coast and trade in the sea. At the same time, the Crimean Khanate Tatars, the only survivor of the Golden Horde, continued to invade Southern Russia. In an effort to recapture the canals of the Volga, the Crimea and its Ottoman allies invaded central Russia and overthrew parts of Moscow in 1571. The following year, however, a large invading army was completely defeated by the Russians in the Battle of Molodi, ending the threat of Ottoman-Crimea expansion in Russia. Crimean slavery, however, did not end until the end of the 17th century, although the construction of new reinforcements in southern Russia, such as the Great Abatis Line, often limited the area to incursions.  The death of Ivan’s sons marked the end of the ancient Rurik Dynasty in 1598, and with the famine of 1601-03, it led to civil war, imperial rule, and international intervention during the Time of Troubles in the early 17th century. The Polish Commonwealth – Lithuanian took over parts of Russia, including Moscow. In 1612, the Polish people were forced to withdraw from the Russian volunteer army, led by two national heroes, the traitor Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky. The Romanov Dynasty agreed to the throne in 1613 with the decision of Zemsky Sobor, and the country began to recover slowly from the crisis.

Russian Civil War

1932 White émigré propaganda poster
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Another socialist party was there, the Petrograd Soviet, which exercised power through the democratically elected labor and peasant unions, called the Soviets. The new administration simply removed the tension in the country instead of resolving it. Finally, the October Revolution, led by Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Interim Government and gave full control to the Soviet Union, which led to the formation of the first socialist state.

After the October Revolution, the Russian Civil War broke out between the white Communist Party and the new Soviet regime and its Red Army. Bolshevist Russia lost its Ukrainian, Polish, Baltic and Finnish territories by signing the Brest-Litovsk Treaty that ended hostilities with World War I. Allied forces began unsuccessful military intervention in support of anti-Communist forces. Meanwhile, both the Bolsheviks and the Whites campaigned for deportation and assassination, known as the Red Terror and the White Terror. By the end of the civil war, Russia’s economy and infrastructure were severely damaged. An estimated 7 million to 12 million people were injured during the war, most of them civilians. Millions became White Emigres, and the Russian famine of 1921–22 took five million victims.

Foreign relations

(Osaka – Japão, 28/06/2019) Presidente da República, Jair Bolsonaro, durante foto de família dos Líderes do G20..Foto: Alan Santos / PR

As of 2019, Russia has a network of the five largest international organizations in the world; to maintain trade relations with 190 United Nations member states, two partially recognized countries, and three United Nations observers; and 144 ambassadors. It is considered a superpower; and is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. Russia is a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, and the APEC, and is leading the way in organizations such as the CIS, EAEU, CSTO, SCO, and BRICS.

Russia maintains good relations with other SCO countries, EAEU, and the BRICS, especially with neighboring Belarus, located in the Union State, the last major alliance with Russia. Serbia has been a close partner in Russian history for centuries, as both countries are deeply involved in culture, race and religion. In the 21st century, Sino-Russian ties have strongly strengthened both countries and the economy – the Friendship Agreement, and the construction of the ESPO oil pipeline and the Power of Siberia power pipeline formed a special bond between the two. India is the largest customer of Russia’s military resources, and these countries share strong historical ties and political ties.

Canada

Map of Canada
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Canada is a North American country. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and north to the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square miles (3.85 million square kilometers), making it the world’s second largest land area. The southern and western border of the United States, stretching 8,891 kilometers (5,525 mi), is the longest land boundary formed nationally. The Canadian capital is Ottawa, with three major cities in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver. Various indigenous peoples have been living in what is now Canada for thousands of years. Beginning in the 16th century, British and French campaigns explored and later settled on the Atlantic coast. As a result of various armed conflicts, France surrendered almost all of its colonies to North America in 1763. In 1867, with the unification of three British colonies in North America by the Confederation, Canada was established as a state of four provinces. This began with the accumulation of provinces and territories and the process of increasing independence from the United Kingdom. This growing independence was highlighted by the Westminster Statement of 1931 and culminated in the Canadian Act of 1982, which removed the remnants of legal dependence on the British Parliament.

Canada Day in Canada
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Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy according to Westminster tradition. The head of state is the prime minister – who holds office because of his or her ability to control the integrity of the House of Representatives – and is appointed by the Governor General, representing the king, who serves as head of state. The country is a Commonwealth state and officially speaks two languages ​​at the state level. It is among the world’s highest standards of openness, public liberty, quality of life, economic freedom, and education. It is one of the most diverse and multicultural countries in the world, the product of mass migration from many other countries. Canada’s long-standing relationship with the United States has had a profound effect on its economy and culture.

A highly developed country, Canada has the highest seventeen per capita income and the 16th highest ranking in the Human Development Index. Its developed economy is the tenth largest in the world, relying heavily on many natural resources and developed overseas trading networks. Canada is part of major international institutions and governments or groups including the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the Tenth Party, the G20, the United States – Mexico – the Canadian Treaty, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Organization international de la Francophonie, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, and the Organization of American States.

British North American

The Royal Declaration of 1763 terminated the rights of the First Nation Treaty, formed the Province of Quebec out of New France, and reunited Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. ISt. John’s Island (now Prince Edward Island) became a separate colony in 1769.  To avoid conflict in Quebec, the British Parliament passed the Quebec Act 1774, extending Quebec’s territory to the Great Lakes and Ohio Valley. Most importantly, the Quebec Act gave Quebec exceptional independence and self-determination during a period of thirteen colonies’ ongoing protests against the British Empire. It also re-established the French language, Catholicism and French law there, to prevent the growth of the liberation movement in contrast to the thirteen Colonies. The Declaration and the Law of Quebec offended many citizens of the thirteen Colonials, furthering anti-British sentiments in the years leading up to the American Revolution.

War of 1812 heroine Laura Secord warning British commander James FitzGibbon of an impending American attack at Beaver Dams
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After the successful American Civil War, the Paris Agreement of 1783 recognized the newly established United States independence and set peace goals, separating the British territories in North America south of the Great Lakes and east of the Mississippi River in the new world. [62] The American war of independence also led to the mass exodus of Loyalists, citizens who fought for American independence. Many emigrated to Canada, especially to Atlantic Canada, where their arrival changed the distribution of native lands. New Brunswick was also parted with Nova Scotia as part of the reorganization of the Maritimes Loyalist settlements that led to the relocation of Santa John, New Brunswick to become Canada’s first city. In recognition of the influx of English-speaking Loyalists to Central Canada, the Constitutional Act of 1791 divided the Canadian province into French-speaking Lower Canada (later Quebec) and English-speaking Upper Canada (later Ontario), giving each one his own law. you have selected an organization.

Confederation and Expansion

Animated map showing the growth and change of Canada's provinces and territories since Confederation in 1867
credit: https://wikipedia

After several constitutional conferences, the British North America Act 1867 officially declared the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, initially in four provinces: Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick. Canada replaced Rupert’s Land and the North-Western Territory to form the Northwest Territories, where Métis protests sparked the Red River Rebellion and the construction of the province of Manitoba in July 1870. British Columbia and Vancouver Island (merged 1866) joined -1871 with the promise of a transit train that passed to Victoria in the province within ten years, when Prince Edward Island joined in 1873. [76] In 1898, during the Klondike Gold Rush in the Northwest Territories, Parliament formed the Yukon Territory. Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in 1905. Between 1871 and 1896, about a quarter of Canadians migrated south, to the U.S.

To open the West and promote European migration, Parliament has approved funding for the construction of three railways across the continent (including the Canadian Pacific Railway), the opening of Dominion Lands Act, and the establishment of a North West Police Force to prove its authority. This period of western expansion and nation-building led to the relocation of many indigenous Canadian Prairies to “Indian reserves”, opening the way for European settlements. This led to the collapse of the Plains Bison in western Canada and the introduction of European cattle ranches and wheat fields that ruled the world.

United States

The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), better known as the United States (U.S. or US) or the United States, is the most common country in North America. It contains 50 counties, a state district, five major exclusion zones, 326 Indian reservations, and other small items. Of the 3.8 million square kilometers (9.8 million square kilometers), it is the third or fourth largest planet in the world. With a population of over 331 million, it is the third most populous country in the world. The national capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.

List of states and territories of the United States

The Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to North America at least 12,000 years ago, and the European colony began in the 16th century. The United States has emerged from thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Disputes over taxation and political representation with Great Britain led to the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), which ushered in independence. In the late 18th century, the U.S. It began to expand beyond North America, gradually gaining new territories, sometimes by war, constantly removing the Native Americans, and embracing new lands; in 1848, the United States opened the continent. Slavery was legal in the southern United States until the second half of the 19th century when the American Civil War led to its abolition. The Spanish-American War and World War I founded the U.S. As a world power, a state confirmed by the outcome of World War II.

During the Cold War, the United States fought the Korean War and the Vietnam War but avoided direct military conflicts with the Soviet Union. Two superpowers competed in the Space Race, culminating in a 1969 space shuttle that began to bring people to the Moon. The dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 ended the Cold War, leaving the United States as a world power.

Indigenous peoples and Pre-Columbian History

It is generally accepted that the first North American citizens left Siberia via the Bering World Bridge and arrived at least 12,000 years ago; however, other evidence suggests the date of the initial arrival. Clovis’ tradition, dating to about 11,000 years before Christ, is believed to represent the first wave of human settlement in the Americas. This may have been the first of three major wavelengths of migration to North America; the latest waves brought the ancestors of the modern Athabaskans, the Aleuts, and the Eskimos.

The Cliff Palace, built by the Native American Puebloans between AD 1190 and 1260
credit: https://wikipedia

Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, while others, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, architecture, and complex societies. The city of Cahokia is the largest, most complex pre-Colombian archaeological site in the modern United States. In the Four Corners, the Puebloan ancestral culture has flourished since centuries of agricultural experimentation. Haudenosaunee, located south of the Great Lakes region, was established sometime between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries. Outstanding along the Atlantic coast were the Algonquian tribes, who hunted and captured, as well as limited farming.

It is estimated that the natives of North America during contact with Europeans are difficult. Douglas H. Ubelaker of the Smithsonian Institution estimated that there were 92,916 people in the southern Atlantic and a population of 473,616 in the Gulf states, but many scholars consider this figure to be too low. Anthropologist Henry F. Dobyns believed the population was too high, estimated to be 1.1 million off the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, 2.2 million people living between Florida and Massachusetts, 5.2 million people in the Mississippi Valley and streams, and people about 700,000 in the Florida peninsula.

Further Immigration, Expansion, and Industrialization

In the North, unprecedented urbanization and the influx of people from Southern and Eastern Europe provided many of the country’s industrial activities and changed its culture. National infrastructure, including the telegraph and the transcontinental railway, has encouraged economic growth and greater resolution and development for the American Old West. The invention of the electric light later and the telephone can also affect contact with urban life.

Ellis Island, in New York Harbor, was a major entry point for European immigration into the U.S.

The United States fought Indian wars on the west side of the Mississippi River from 1810 to at least 1890. Most of these disputes ended with the local ban on Native Americans and their imprisonment in Indian reservations. Moreover, the Trail of Tears in the 1830s became an example of an Indian expulsion policy that forced the Indians to settle. This increase in acreage under mechanized farming, increases the residue of global markets. The expansion of the South African continent included the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867. In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the Hawaiian monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the US allied with in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were assigned to Spain the same year, following the Spanish-American War. American Samoa was discovered by the United States in 1900 after the end of the Second Samoan Civil War. U.S. Islands Virgin was purchased in Denmark in 1917.

Rapid economic development in the late 19th and early 20th centuries encouraged the growth of many prominent businessmen. Tycoons such as Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the nation’s progress in the rail, petrol, and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, and J. P. Morgan played a prominent role. The American economy has grown, becoming the largest in the world. These major changes have been accompanied by social unrest and the rise of social, socialist and anarchist movement. This period finally came to an end with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw major changes involving sufficient women, alcohol ban, consumer control, and major measures to curb trust and care for employees.

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