trade and commerce in Brunei Darussalam

Anthropology: Brunei Darussalam Culture, Lifestyle, and History

While the political power rests primarily in the hands of Barna, one ethnic group among many, Brunei Darussalam is known to be a multi-ethnic nation. The difference in tradition between other ethnic groups is not the region, but the culture, society, and language. Indigenous Muslims are not native speakers of Malaysia but are often referred to as Brunei Malay.

Introduction to Brunei Darussalam

brunei-omar ali saifuddien mosque
by commonwealth


Brunei culture‘s original hometown is around the capital Bandarseri, the area of Begawan. Settlements of Brunei and Kadayan are also found along the northern coast of Sarawak and southwestern Sabah, Malaysia. The villages of Tutong and Bright are only available in Brunei. Visayas, Ivan and Penang also live in Sarawak, while Dusun and Murut live in Sarawak and Sabah. Brunei Dal Salaam covers 5,763 square kilometers and has a coastline of approximately 161 km along the coast of the South China Sea northwest of Borneo and the west coast of the southern tip of the Gulf of Brunei. Moreover, Sarawak, Malaysia surrounds Brunei.

There is no clear rainy season, but the climate is sub-equatorial, with high temperatures, high humidity, and heavy rainfall. The country is divided into three adjacent administrative districts, Brunei-Muara, Tuton, and Bright, and the fourth district of Temburong is separated from the Limbang Valley in Sarawak. The name of the district comes from the main river. Log exports are prohibited, but about 75% of the country is forested. The country is covered with mangroves, heather, swamps, mixed dipterocarp forests, and mountain forests. There are many rivers and vast valleys which include most of the country’s settlements. The southern part of Temburong is a hilly area with a sparse population.

Language Link

Malay is the official language, but English is widely used in business. The Malay dialect of Brunei has many unique vocabulary elements and unique syntax. Malay is part of the Austronesian West Polynesian Malay subgroup, which also includes other languages spoken in Brunei. Guest workers speak multiple languages in Chinese, English, Filipino, and mainland Southeast Asia. Many people speak several languages.

History and identity of Brunei Darussalam

Hiostory of Brunei
by Wikipedia

The origin of countries is only vaguely known. Local traditions include Hawan Harak Batatar, who converted to Islam and became Brunei’s first Muslim sultan, Sultan Muhammad. He talks about some ancient heroes of Borneo’s local culture, such as his brother Patty Barbai. Many Brunei aristocrats were born in the Pagaruyun region of the Minanga Kabau Highlands of Tiger Barb. The third king, Sharif Ali, who married the daughter of Sultan Ahmed, was of Arab descent and, like all subsequent kings, a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad.

Chinese records indicate that the ruler of Brunei sent a mission to the Chinese emperor in 977 AD. The Brunei Empire extended to Manila and the southern Philippines, as well as coastal areas to the west and north of Borneo, culminating in the 16th century. The nadir originated in the 19th century. Two invasions. Spain’s last failed attempt on Manila was in 1578 and 1580. A 12-year civil war raged between 1661 and 1673. Brunei became a British protectorate in 1888 and became a British protectorate in 1888. It became self-sufficient internally after the promulgation of the Constitution in 1959. After gaining full independence in 1984, Brunei joined the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), the Organization for the Cooperation of Islam, and the United States. Country. In 1992, Brunei joined the Non-Aligned Movement.

National Identity of Brunei Darussalam

In 1990, a new national ideology was introduced to promote the unity of different groups in many societies. The Malay Muslim Belaja (MIB, or Malay Muslim Monarchy) is based on the idea of   Brunei as a long-established traditional Malaysian state, Islamic state, and monarchy. All ethnic groups were still under the authority and control of the Sultan.

There are two forms of administrative management of the state. A system of modern administrative offices and traditional ceremonial offices. These were given to nobles and nobles by the sultan. Individuals can increase the rank of both systems. In the traditional system, the nobility consisted of 5 vizier offices and about 60 other miscellaneous offices, and the nobility consisted of approximately 73 ministerial offices (Pehin). All residents are men. Not all of these traditional offices are always busy. The office will not be inherited on the death of the resident but will remain vacant until the King appoints a new resident.

Symbolic identity

The flag is composed of two yellow trapezoidal fields, with white diagonal stripes of the parallelogram above the black diagonal stripes of the parallelogram, the first Vizier (Muslim officer), Penguiran Benda. Hara represents the third office of the vizier. Pengi Lampamancha. These are the only offices of the vizier occupied in 1906 by the first British residents. The national flag is decorated in the center with the red coat of arms added in 1959. The coat of arms consists of a flag and a royal umbrella. The four wings represent justice, peace, prosperity, and the protection of peace. The two hands represent the government’s commitment to promoting well-being, peace, and prosperity. The crescent moon symbolizes Islam and is written in Arabic as “always serve according to the direction of God”. Brunei Darussalam (“Brunei, the homeland of peace”), a parchment inscribed in Arabic script.

The lifestyle of Brunei Darussalam

trade and commerce in Brunei Darussalam
by anasalwa

The rate of child abuse appears to be below, but it is severely punished. Domestic violence can lead to divorce. Overall, Brunei is crime-free, especially when it comes to violent crime.

The citizens are provided with free public health services for permanent residents, immigration officials, and their dependents at a minimum fee. There are public hospitals and two private hospitals in each of the four districts, and there are large referral hospitals in the capital. Rural areas have regular medical services by helicopter. Citizens are often sent abroad for treatment at government expense. The government pays for the treatment of the citizens when sent abroad.

Architecture and urban planning in Brunei Darussalam

The capital is the major population center of the nation. Other major cities include Tutong Town, the county seat of Tutong County. Kuala Belait, the capital of the Belait district. The town of Bangar, the capital of the Temburong district. Muara Deep Sea Port opened in Brunei-Muara district in 1973. Ceria is the center of the oil industry in the Belait district. There are also suburban developments around the capital and rural areas. Over the last 20 years, huge accumulations have been seen around the capital. A network of roads and highways connects a complex of three adjacent counties.

The architecture of the capital and its surroundings is mainly the Omar Ali Saifuddien Mosque with its golden dome (completed in 1958). Nururuiman Palace (1983), the largest residential palace in the world. Royal Regalia Building (1992); Royal Audience Hall (1968); and Legislative Assembly (1968). The tomb of the fifth king is 3 kilometers downstream from the capital. The Royal Mausoleum has been in use since 1786. Hassanal Bolkiah National Stadium is the venue for many major celebrations. Over the last decade, many parks and recreation centers have been developed.

 Food and economy in Brunei Darussalam

The meal consists of rice and curry with vegetables, fish, shellfish, and fruit. Buffalo, chicken, and beef curry can be eaten on special occasions. Game and animals (especially rat deer, sambar deer, bark) are consumed locally. You can also eat a variety of rice cakes and Malaysian products. Muslims forbid pork products. Major cities have a variety of open markets and restaurants. A popular local drink is unripe coconut milk with ice cream. Coffee is widely consumed. Muslims are banned from alcoholic beverages. For large Malaysian weddings and funerals, coconut cream rice curry (tan), and meat curry are usually served to over 100 guests.

Commercial activities of Brunei Darussalam

Commercial transactions are still in their infancy. Local industries include soda factories, beverage franchises, and clothing companies. Foreign investment is encouraged, but not very developed. Ensuring the stability of the natural environment is a top priority and all polluting industries are prohibited. Forestry and deep-sea fisheries are not open to foreign investment. The international airport was inaugurated in 1974 and Royal Brunei Airlines began operations in 1975. Commercial production of oil from onshore wells began in 1929. Offshore production began in 1963. . The main LNG production facility was completed in 1972.


Brunei’s economy is primarily supported by exports of crude oil and natural gas, with revenues from the oil sector accounting for more than 50% of GDP. A 1990 survey estimated exports at about $2.2 billion, comprising major exports of crude oil, liquefied natural gas, and oil. Brunei’s main trading partners are Japan, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. Also in the 1990 census, imported raw materials amounted to $1.7 billion. Brunei imports goods such as machinery, vehicles, food, and industrial products. Singapore, the United Kingdom, and Switzerland are the main sources of these imports from Brunei.

Social structure of Brunei Darussalam

brunei darussalam sultan and people
Brunei’s Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah (center-L) and Queen Saleha (centre-R) wave from the royal chariot during a procession to mark his golden jubilee of accession to the throne in Bandar Seri Begawan on October 5, 2017. / AFP PHOTO / ROSLAN RAHMAN

The dominant ethnic group, Barney, consisted of four classified social classes: aristocrats, aristocrats, ordinary people, and slaves, but slavery was no longer practiced. Because class membership is purely genealogical, a person is considered a member of the father’s class and cannot be moved or dropped into another class.

The only outward sign of social stratification is that the name of respect is used to refer to or to the nobility. A monthly pension is allocated to a few groups under a national scheme. This includes; citizens, previously foreigners, that have at the time of, worked in Brunei for at least 30 years, and permanent residents. Elderly people with dependents who are not old enough to work will receive an additional allowance.


Support for newborns. Newborns are regularly under the supervision of their parents, who often lead them to the tasks they need to be involved in. Children are loved and appreciated by everyone. Parents hold young children responsible for looking after their siblings from an early age, especially in rural areas. Universiti Bruneidal Salaam was opened in 1985 and offers several degree programs, several masters’, and several certificate programs. About 2,000 students with government scholarships study abroad, mainly in Commonwealth countries.

Social values of Brunei Darussalam

The following social behaviors are usually supposed to be followed. Only transfer items with your right hand. Throw away the food by touching the box with your right hand, non-verbally. The point with your thumb instead of your index finger. Take off your shoes every time you enter a house or public building, especially a mosque. Squeeze your hand and then gently touch the center of your chest with your right hand. We never choose people by name. Do not consume items until specifically requested. Avoid physical contact between the two in public.

Domestic units

National unity is the nuclear family or the extended family. This family arrangement is the result of the tradition of the newlyweds moving to the parents of the bride. After a while, the young couple can start their own independent family. Islamic hereditary law applies to followers of Islam. Traditional customs apply to non-Muslims.

There is no parent-child relationship group based on descendants. Malay kinship is transgenerational, with all “aunts” and “uncles” being called “mothers” and “fathers,” and in Hawaiian all “cousins” being called “brothers.” The kinship network of parents can be very wide for Kadayan, who treats stepparents as biological kinship, and narrower for Brunei.

The cultural significance in the anthropology of Brunei Darussalam

Culture of Brunei Darussalam
by iTAP world

 Gender roles and statuses in Brunei Darussalam

Gender division of labor. Women began to hold positions of responsibility in government agencies and agencies. Women can join the army, but cannot participate in combat. The relative status of women and men. Compared to Islamic societies in the Middle East, women occupy a very high position. Muslim women are encouraged to wear the traditional Tudor headdress.

Usually, the young man’s parents hold a wedding ceremony with the young woman’s parents. For Muslims, the spouse must also be a Muslim. As a result, individuals, especially men, often convert to Islam to marry a Muslim. Group marriages between ethnic groups are not uncommon. There are slight differences between group marriages and within ethnic groups.

Religious beliefs

The state religion is the Shafeite sect of Islam. Religious holidays have varying dates which are set according to the lunar calendar. The beginning of Ramadan marks the beginning of the holy month of fasting. The Quranic celebration commemorates the revelation of Islamic scriptures. Hari Raya Aidilfitri or Hari Raya Puasa celebrates the end of the fasting month. Hari Raya Eid al-Adha or Hari Raya Haji celebrates a Hajj or sacred pilgrimage to Mecca. Hijra commemorates the journey of Prophet Muhammad Sararaf Ali Hiwasalam from Mecca to Medina. Muro’s birthday, or the Prophet Mohammed, celebrates the birth of the founder of Islam. Islark Miklaji commemorating the ascension of Muhammad.

Divorce, family, and certain sex crimes are governed by Islamic law and fall under the jurisdiction of the religious justice system. The 60 mosques are managed by the Ministry of Religion. The king’s tomb is often considered a sanctuary site.


Local history and craft are supported by many public institutions, such as the Royal Regalia Building (1992), Brunei History Center (1982), Churchill Memorial Museum, Brunei Museum (1972), the Museum of Malay Technology (1988), Crafts Center, and the Constitution Museum.

The Department of Languages and Literature publishes textbooks in Malay and English for primary and secondary schools, promoting the development of literature and folklore. The form of poetry known as Sajak is very popular with students. Many local writers have become famous. Sya’ir Awang Simawn is known to be a widely popular work of art among the locals.

Traditional arts and crafts make up the bulk of Brunei’s cultural heritage. Boat making, silverware, bronze tools, weaving, and wicker weaving are examples of art forms admired and imitated in modern culture.

Leave a Reply