Anguilla is a British colony overseas in the Caribbean. It is one of the northernmost islands of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles, lying east of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands and just north of Saint Martin. The territory consists of the main island of Anguilla, about 16 miles (26 km) long and 5 miles [5 km] wide at its widest point, as well as a few small islands and permanent settlements. The capital of the field is The Valley. The total area of the field is 35 square kilometers (91 km2) with a population of approximately 14,731. Nuilla was first settled by Native Americans from South America. The first Native American art discovered in Anguilla dates to as early as 1300 BC; The remains of the settlement date to AD 600. The Aramaic name of the island was Malliouhana. Whether Anguilla was first discovered by Europeans is uncertain: some sources say that Columbus saw the island on his second voyage in 1493, while others claim that the first European explorer was a French Huguenot official and a merchant Rene Goulaine de Laudonniere in 1564. The Dutch West India Company established a fortress on the island in 1631. However, the Company later withdrew after its fortress was destroyed by the Spaniards in 1633.
Traditional accounts say that Anguilla was first colonized by English settlers from Saint Kitts in 1650. Residents focus on growing tobacco, and low-quality cotton. The French annexed the island in 1666 but returned it to the British under the terms of the Treaty of Breda the following year. Major John Scott who visited in September 1667, wrote about leaving the island “in good condition” and noted that in July 1668, “200 or 300 people fled there during the war”. The French invaded again in 1688, 1745 and 1798, causing great destruction but failed to conquer the island.
It is possible that the first European immigrants brought enslaved Africans. Historians confirm that African slaves lived in the region in the early 17th century, as did Senegalese slaves living in St Kitts in the mid-1600’s. In 1672 there was a slave depot on the island of Nevis, working for the Leeward Islands. These appear to be from Central Africa as well as West Africa. [Slaves were forced to work in sugar plantations that had begun to reintroduce tobacco as a major Anguilla harvest. In time, African slaves and their descendants came in greater numbers than white settlers. The African slave trade was finally abolished within the British Empire in 1807, and slavery was completely abolished in 1834. Many growers then sold and left the island.
At the beginning of the colonies, Anguilla was ruled by the British through Antigua; in 1825, it was placed under the control of the nearby Saint Kitts. Anguilla was allied with St Kitts and Nevis in 1882, in opposition to the wishes of many Anguillian. The economic downturn, along with the devastating effects of the severe drought in the 1890s and later the Great Depression of the 1930s, led many Anguans to emigrate in search of a better hope.
How was Anguilla established?
Anguilla, an island east of the Caribbean Sea, is Britain’s overseas destination. It is located north of the Leeward Islands in Lesser Antilles and lies approximately 19 kilometers (19 km) north of Saint Martin Island and 60 miles northwest of Saint Kitts. The valley is the main city and administrative center of the island. Known for its accessible nature and beautiful beaches and water, Anguilla is a popular tourist destination. An area of 35 square kilometers (91 square km). Pop. (2006 est.) 14,254.
Anguilla is barren and flat and full of white sand beaches. It is 16 km (26 km) long and 6 km wide (6 km) wide; its short, short descent gave the island its name (French: anguille, “eel”). The area includes a number of uninhabited sea islands, the largest of which are the Dog Islands, Scrub, and Sombrero as well as Prickly Pear Cays.
Anguilla is made of coral and limestone. The ground is flat but not flat. The highest point, Crocus Hill, has an altitude of 210 meters (64 meters). The north coast is marked by steep slopes and steep cliffs; the south coast has long and steep slopes that run slowly down the sea. The soil layer is thin, but there are small packs of reddish-brown, especially in shallow valleys called bottles. Like many coral islands, fresh water is scarce. The island has no rivers, but there are many high-salt lakes, especially along the coast, which provided the Anguilla salt industry until the collapse of the 1980s.
The weather is hot; the average temperature is as low as 80s ° F (approximately 28 ° C), and the rainfall is about 35 inches (900 mm) per year. Storms can occur from June to November and are sometimes more severe, such as those in 1995 and 1999. Storms play a key role in eroding the island’s beaches. Extreme erosion is also caused by indiscriminate excavation of sand, which has led to the disappearance of some beaches. The vegetation of the island consists mainly of small trees as well as a little rubbing in the land and the fruit of the sea vine along the coast. There are other fruit trees. The wildlife of Anguilla includes land reptiles, sea turtles, lobsters and goats, the last of which is ubiquitous. There are many species of birds, including the national bird, the dove; the island is a haven for migratory birds.
Tradition and Languages
Identity document- Anguilla, a region based in the United Kingdom, is one of the Leeward Islands. Traditionally, Christopher Columbus gave the small, small island its name in 1493 because in the distance it resembled an eel, or in Italian, anguilla. It is also possible that French sailor Pierre Laudonniere gave the island its name from French pain.
Location and Geography- Anguilla is located just north of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles of the eastern Caribbean Sea. Nearby islands include Scrub, Seal, Dog and Sombrero Islands as well as Prickly Pear Cays. Anguilla is five miles (eight miles) north of Saint Martin and six miles (ninety miles) north-east of Saint Kitts. Anguilla’s land area covers thirty-five square miles (nine square miles). It is sixteen kilometers (twenty-six kilometers) long and three and a half meters (six kilometers) wide, with a maximum height of two hundred and thirteen meters (sixty-five meters), at Crocus Hill. The largest city, in the center of the island, is The Valley. Flat, Anguilla is an island of coral and limestone with a very dry climate. It is covered with a small amount of vegetation, and there are a few areas of fertile soil; Most of the world is very familiar with pasture food. Anguilla has no rivers, but there are many salt lakes, which are used for commercial salt production. The climate is sunny and dry all year round, with average temperatures of 80 degrees Fahrenheit (27 degrees Celsius). Anguilla is located in an area known for hurricanes, which are likely to strike from July to October.
Demographics- Originally inhabited by some Carib settlers from northern South America, Anguilla was later colonized by the English, in the 1600s. Today most people are of African descent. A small number of Caucasians are mostly British. The average population is very small; more than one-third are under the age of fifteen. Anguilla has a population of about nine thousand permanent residents.
Language Integration- The official language of Anguilla is English. The Creole language, derived from the English and African languages, is also spoken by some Anguillans.
Illustration- The flag of Anguilla was modified several times during the 20th century. The current flag has a dark blue field with Union Jack, the flag of Great Britain, in the upper left corner, and Anguilla’s crest on the right. The crest consists of a white background at the top and a blue background at the bottom and has three golden dolphins leaping round. For official government purposes outside of Anguilla, the British flag is used to represent the island.
Food and Economy
Food for daily life- With an abundance of seafood, fruits and vegetables, daily food is fresh and reflects the cultural history of Anguilla. Lobsters are common and important for export as well. As the Caribbean has become a popular tourist destination, the demand for lobsters continues to grow. Lobster and crayfish are often cooked with cilantro and plantains. Red snapper, conch, and whelk are also common in Anguilla. Other dishes include lamb stew and island vegetable meat, as well as pumpkin soup. Anguilla also produces its own type of soda, using local ingredients. Salted fish, curved goat, and crawling chicken are also popular.
Basic Economy- Tourism is now the backbone of Anguilla’s economy, but other important economic activities include fishing, especially lobster and conch; salt production; livestock farming; and boat construction. There is a small financial services industry that the British and Anguillan governments are trying to expand. The money returned to the island from Anguillans who have moved abroad is also important for the general economy. No income tax; customs tax, property tax, bank licenses, and the sale of stamps give the Anguillan government money. Both the eastern Caribbean dollar and the US dollar are used as currency.
Land Lease and Property- Anguilla’s dry climate has always disappointed potential potential residents in the past, but with the increase in tourism, land and property have increased dramatically. Strict land management and inaccessibility has helped keep infrastructure development growing uncontrollably. Clean beaches and plants and animals abound. At the end of slavery in the 1830’s, the land was divided into smaller plots among the islanders. A few tourist hotels have been built in recent years, but not the largest private resorts found in other parts of the Caribbean.
Commercial Services- Tourism and related activities are now the most widely distributed commercial products. Hotels, restaurants, bars, boating and drop-offs, tourist shops, and travel services are the main commercial activities. The food business, such as markets and bakeries, is also important. Anguilla manufactures and sells collectible stamps and this is a small but economically viable component.
Major Industries- Anguilla is not industrialized. Fishing, especially lobster, is exported to the Caribbean and the United States. The salt, produced by evaporation from the salt marshes of the island, occurs in large quantities large enough to be exported. Agricultural production, used by Anguillan and other islands, includes corn, pigeon peas and potatoes. Meat products come from sheep, goats, pigs and poultry.
Trading- Great Britain and neighboring islands are Anguilla’s most expensive and important partners. Seafood and salt are still important for important exports. A large number of consumer goods and building materials must be imported. With a strong economy, Anguillans were able to afford many of the things that would have been more expensive in the last two decades.
Division of Functions- Anguilla has a low standard of living, and work is often unstable. Many young Anguillans have moved abroad in search of work, either in Great Britain, the United States, or in other large Caribbean islands. Since Anguilla’s independence from Saint Kitts and the growth of the tourist sector, unemployment rates have improved dramatically. There is now a shortage of workers, which has led to delays in some of the government-sponsored economic programs as well as price increases and wages. Many work visas are issued to non-Anguillans, but with the need for more staff, more Anguillans hold more than one job. The British government provides support for the development and jobs program, and the Caribbean Development Bank has also provided funding to help create jobs and revitalize growth.
Family, Marriage and Socialization
Marriage- The extended family is between Anguillan and West Indian communities in general. Despite the strong influence of the Methodist and Anglican Churches, marriage was historically not considered a family affair or a house-to-house arrangement. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, with the exception of a small upper class of English landowners, social conditions and slavery made the formation of long-lasting unions more difficult. Men and women lived together in common legal marriages at various times. It was not uncommon for women and men to have children with more than one partner. Marriage in the Western sense was more likely to occur between the upper and middle classes. Today marriage is regarded as the cornerstone of a family and a community, and weddings are a social event.
Infant Care- Infants and toddlers are cared for at home by their mothers or other female relatives. The increase in government spending on education has provided funding for education and care and assistance for working mothers. However, many children stay home until they start elementary school at the age of five.
Parenting and Education- Anguilla, like many other West Indies islands, seeks to improve literacy and education levels in the second half of the 20th century. Between the ages of five and fourteen education is compulsory and free through the public school system. There are several primary and secondary schools.
Higher education- To get advanced training, specialized or university degrees, Anguillans must go to another Caribbean country or leave the area. In 1948 the University of the West Indies was established in Jamaica to provide higher education in all English-speaking countries in the region. It has created a West Indies educational institution in general and serves as an important link with the international education community.