Anthropology: History and Evolution of Human Beings

Human evolution is a process of evolution that led to the emergence of human beings, beginning with the history of the evolution of apes – especially the Homo species – and leading to the emergence of Homo sapiens as a separate species of the hominid family, comprising the great apes. This process involved the gradual development of traits such as human bipedalism and language as well as the reproduction of other hominins, showing that human evolution was not lines but was web.

Homo Sapiens
credit: https://wikipedia

Evolutionary research covers a wide range of scientific fields, including anthropology, primatology, archeology, paleontology, neurobiology, ethology, linguistics, evolutionary psychology, embryology, and -genetics. Genetic research shows that primates evolved from other mammals about 85 million years ago, during the Late Cretaceous period, and that the first fossils appeared in the Paleocene, 55 million years ago.

Within Hominoidea in the extended family, the Hominidae family deviated from the Hylobatidae family 15-20 million years ago; small families Homininae (African monkeys) differed from Ponginae (orangutans ) about 14 million years ago; the Hominini tribe (including humans, Australopithecus, and chimpanzees) split from the Gorillini (gorilla) between 8 million and 9 million years ago and again the Hominina (humans and extinct ancestors) and Panina (chimpanzees) separated 4-7 million years ago.

History of Human Evolution

Pre-Darwinian Theories

Acceptance of evolution by clicking on this icon to hear the antonym word is an integral part of the modern scientific explanation of the natural world. Most scientists and major religions in the Western world have long been involved in their understanding of nature and humanity. Some churches, however, insist that there was a special and independent creation of all living things and that species evolved from one generation to the next. These “creationists” often share beliefs about the widely preserved Judao-Christian Bible, even by scientists, in the early 19th century and earlier.

The traditional Jewish-Christian genre of nature click on this icon to hear the previous word that has been strongly opposed by James Ussher click on this icon to hear the name called, the 17th Anglican archbishop of Armagh North 17th. By counting the generations of the Bible and adding them to modern history, he set the date of creation on October 23, 4004 B.C. During Ussher’s lifetime, the controversy centered on the details of his statistics rather than on the way. Drs. Charles Lightfoot of Cambridge University in England was the last to speak. He announced that the time of creation was 9:00 A.M. on October 23, 4004 B.C.

Iamarckism in Giraffe
credit: https://wikipedia

The belief that the earth and the life on it is only 6,000 years old fits perfectly with the prevailing view of the “Great Chain of Being.” This holds that God created an infinite and continuous chain of living things, each passing into the next, from the simplest to the most complex, and that all living things, including humans, were created in the present system of things and have not changed since then. Given these strong beliefs, it is not surprising that in the 17th and 18th centuries European biology contained mainly the explanation of plants and animals as they had no attempt to explain how they came to be that way.

Darwin’s Theory of Evolution

The rise of Homo Sapiens

The theory of evolution, which first appeared in Darwin’s book “On the Origin of Species” in 1859, is a process in which things change over time as a result of changes in healthy behavior or behavior. Changes that allow a creature to adapt to its environment will help it to survive and reproduce. Evolution by evolution is one of the most convincing theories in the history of science, supported by evidence from a variety of scientific disciplines, including paleontology, geology, genetics, and evolutionary biology.

The idea has two key points, says Brian Richmond, curator of human history at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. “All life on Earth is interconnected and interconnected,” and this diversity of life is the product of “human evolution by natural selection, in which some traits are favored and known above others,” he said. In a nutshell, this view could be described as “a catastrophic decline,” says Briana Pobiner, a biologist and lecturer at the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C., who focuses on the study of human origins.

Anatomical Changes

The hominoids are descendants of a common ancestor
               credit: https://wikipedia

Man’s emergence from his first separation from the last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees is reflected in the many behavioral, developmental, physical, and behavioral changes. The most important of these changes are bipedalism, increased brain size, increased genegenesis (pregnancy and childhood) and a decrease in sexual dimorphism. The relationship between these changes is a matter of ongoing debate.


Bipedalism is a basic hominid addiction and is considered to be a major cause of the list of bone changes shared by all people with bipedal hominids. The first hominin, the first bipedalism is considered to be Sahelanthropus or Orrorin, both of which originated six to seven million years ago. The non-bipedal knuckle walk, gorillas and chimpanzees, deviate from the hominin line over time so Sahelanthropus or Orrorin may be our last shared ancestor. Ardipithecus, a full-fledged bip, appeared about 5.6 million years ago.

The first goats eventually evolved into australopithecines and later became a Homo breed. There are many theories of the value of adapting to bipedalism. Bipedalism may have been popular because it freed hands from accessing and handling food, saving energy during locomotion enabling long-distance running and hunting, provided an improved visual role, and helped prevent hyperthermia by reducing the area exposed to direct sunlight; incorporates all the benefits of prosperity in the new savanna and woodland built as a result of the elevation of the East African Rift Valley compared to the previous closed forest settlement. A 2007 study found support for the hypothesis that walking with two legs, or bipedalism, arose because it used less energy than walking with a fist.  However, recent research suggests that pepper without the ability to use fire would not allow global warming. This change in gait has seen the extension of the legs equally compared to the length of the arms, which has been made shorter by removing the need for brachiation. Another change is the shape of the big toe. Recent research shows that australopithecines still survive half the time in trees due to the maintenance of large toes. This was progressively lost in the habiline.

Naturally, the emergence of bipedalism is accompanied by a large number of bone changes, not only in the legs and hips, but also in the vertebral column, feet and ankles, and skull. The femur is transformed into a more angular position to move gravity to the center of the geometric body. Knee and ankle joints become stronger to better support the weight gain. To support the increased weight on each vertebra in a straight line, the human vertebral column became S and the lumbar vertebrae became shorter and wider. On the feet the big toe went straight to the other toes to help further the locomotion. The arms and arms are shorter compared to the legs which makes it easier to run. The foramen magnum moved below the skull and above the front.


Shrinking of the Human Brain

The human species eventually developed a brain much larger than that of other puppies – usually 1,330 cm3 modern humans, almost three times the size of a chimpanzee or gorilla brain. After the stasis period with Australopithecus anamensis and Ardipithecus, species that had a small brain due to their pedal extinction, the emphasis pattern began with Homo habilis, which has a 600 cm3 (37 cu in) brain that was larger than that of monkeys. This evolution continued at Homo erectus 800-1,100 cm3 (49-67 cu in), and reached the Neanderthals at 1,200-1,900 cm3 (73-116 cu in), much larger than even today Homo sapiens. This increase in brain activity is evident during postnatal brain development, which is much higher than in other apes (heterochrony). It has also allowed for more time for community learning and language acquisition in young people, from two million years ago.

In addition, changes in the structure of the human brain can be far more significant than growth.

The temporary lobes, consisting of language processing centers, have risen unevenly, such as the prefrontal cortex, which was associated with complex decision-making and social behavior control. Encephalization is tied to the increase of meat and starch in food and to the development of cooking and it is suggested that intelligence be increased in response to the growing need to solve social problems as human society became more complex. Changes in skull morphology, such as minimal flexibility and authorized muscle attachment, allowed more room for the brain to grow.

Sexual Dimorphism

Sexual Dimorphism
            credit: https://wikipedia

The reduced level of sexual dimorphism in humans is mainly seen in the lowering of the male canine tooth in relation to other species of monkeys (other than gibbons) and a decrease in the edges of the forehead and the normal stiffness of males. Another important physical change associated with sex in humans was the emergence of a hidden estrus. Humans are the only hominoid when a woman is fertile all year round and when there are no specific reproductive symptoms produced by the body (such as genital inflammation or extreme changes in thinking during estrus).

However, men maintain a gender dimorphism to some extent in the distribution of body hair and lower fat and by full size, men are about 15% older than women. These collective changes have been interpreted as the result of increased emphasis on pairing as a possible solution to the growing need for parental investment due to long-term childbearing.

The Genetic Revolution

Genetic modification in evolutionary studies began when Vincent Sarich and Allan Wilson measured the immunological cross-reaction of blood serum albumin between two creatures, including humans and African monkeys (chimpanzees and gorillas). The ability to respond can be demonstrated numerically as an immunological factor, which was equal to the number of amino acid differences between homologous proteins in different species. By creating a curve for the ID of the pairs of species with mineral record times, data can be used as a molecular clock to measure the duration of pairs of poor or unknown mineral records.

Louis Leakey examining skulls from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania
credit: https://wikipedia

In their 1967 paper on Science, Sarich and Wilson estimate the time of human and monkey divergence as four to five million years ago, at a time when the standard translation of the fossil record provided this variation of at least 10 to 30 million years. Subsequent discovery of fossils, particularly “Lucy”, and the re-translation of fossil fossils, particularly Ramapithecus, showed younger estimates that they were correct and confirmed the albumin pathway. Advances in DNA sequencing, particularly mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and then Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) have improved understanding of human origin. The use of a molecular clock system greatly altered the study of cell evolution.

On the basis of separation from the orangutan between 10 and 20 years ago, previous molecular clock studies suggested that there were about 76 mutations in each generation that could be inherited by human children from their parents; this evidence supports the time difference between the hominins and the chimpanzees mentioned above. However, a 2012 study in Iceland of 78 children and their parents suggests a rate of conversion of only 36 mutations per generation; this datum increased the gap between humans and chimpanzees in the past more than 7 million years ago (Ma). Further studies of 226 generations of wild chimpanzees in eight regions show that baboons give birth at an average age of 26.5 years; indicating human evolution from apes occurred between 7 and 13 million years ago. And these data suggest that Ardipithecus (4.5 Ma), Orrorin (6 Ma) and Sahelanthropus (7 Ma) are all likely to be of hominid descent, and that divisions are likely to occur outside the East African region.

In addition, an analysis of two genetic variants in 2006 provides evidence that after the human ancestry began to separate from chimpanzees, interspecies intermingled between “proto-human” and “proto-chimpanzee”, however, often enough to mutate certain genes. genetics in a new pool.

New comparisons of the human genome with chimpanzees suggest that after the division of the two lines, they may have begun to reproduce . The main finding is that the human and chimpanzee X chromosomes appear about 1.2 million years later than other chromosomes.

Human Dispersal

Anthropologists in the 1980s were divided on specific details of reproductive barriers and the dispersal of Homo-type migration. Subsequently, genetics has been used to investigate and resolve these problems. According to the Sahara pump theory the evidence indicates that the Homo species has emerged in Africa at least three and four times (e.g. Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis and two or three times in Homo sapiens). Recent evidence suggests that this dispersion is closely related to the changing times of climate change.

Recent evidence suggests that humans may have left Africa half a year earlier. A joint Franco-Indian team found human art in Siwalk Hills north of New Delhi back at least 2.6 million years. This is before the first discovery of the Homo variety in Dmanisi, Georgia, which is 1.85 million years old. Despite the controversy, the tools found in China’s cave reinforce the claim that people used the tools back 2.48 million years ago. This suggests that the Asian “Chopper” tool culture, found in Java and northern China, may have originated in Africa before the emergence of the Acheulian hand axe.

Dispersal of Modern Homo Sapiens

Until genetic evidence was available, there were two distinct forms of modern human distribution. The hypothesis of many countries suggested that the Homo genus contains only the combined population as it is today (not the diverse species), and that its emergence occurred worldwide over the past few years. This model was suggested in 1988 by Milford H. Wolpoff. In contrast, the “African-origin” model suggested that H. The modern H. sapiens specified in Africa recently (i.e., about 200,000 years ago) and subsequent migration through Eurasia led to the full use of other Homo species. This model was created by Chris B. Stringer and Peter Andrews.


The mtDNA and Y-DNA sequences that were sampled from most indigenous peoples revealed ancestral details relating to the inheritance of men and women, and strengthened the theory of “African origin” and also reduced the theory of evolution. Along with genetic variation it was interpreted as supporting one recent source.  Analysis has shown significant variation in DNA patterns across Africa, consistent with the idea that Africa is the ancestor of Eve’s mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal Adam ancestors and that modern human dispersal in Africa only took place over a period of years.

Inter Species Breeding

The reproductive hypothesis, also known as hybridization, admixture or hybrid-origin theory, has been discussed since the discovery of Neanderthal fossils in the 19th century. The direct view of human evolution began to be abandoned in the 1970s with the discovery of a variety of human beings that made direct thinking difficult. In the 21st century, with the advent of molecular biology and computer programming, neanderthal gene sequences were performed with the human genome, confirming the recent interdependence of different species. Today, about 2% of DNA for all non-Africans (including Europeans, Asians, and Oceania) is Neanderthal with a trace of Denisovan’s heritage. Also, 4-6% of modern Melanesian genes are Denisovan.  Comparisons of human genes with the genes of Neandertals, Denisovans, and monkeys may help to identify features that distinguish modern humans from other types of hominin. In a 2016 genomics comparison study, the Harvard Medical School / UCLA research team developed a global map for distribution and made some predictions about how the genes of Denisovan and Neanderthal could affect modern human biology.

For example, comparative studies in the mid-2010s discovered a number of neurological, immunological, developmental and metabolic phenotypes, developed by early humans in European and Asian regions and inherited from modern humans in combination with local hominins.

Use of Tools in the Ancient times


The tools has been used and  interpreted as a sign of ingenuity, and it has been suggested that the use of tools is likely to promote certain aspects of human evolution, especially the further development of the human mind. Paleontology has remained to be explained the extension of this organ over the millions of years even though it strongly requires the use of force. The modern human brain consumes about 13 watts or (260 kilocalories per day), which is about one fifth of the body’s rest energy consumption. Extended use of tools will allow for the hunt for energy-rich meat products, and will allow for the processing of energy-rich plant products. Researchers have suggested that early hominin was less likely to be influenced by evolution to increase its ability to make and use tools.

Certainly when the ancient people began to use the tools, it is very difficult to determine because these tools are too old (for example, sharp stones) it becomes very difficult to determine whether they are natural or man-made objects. There is some evidence that australopithecines (4 Ma) may have used broken bones as tools, but this is disputed.

So many species tried to make and use the tools, but the type of person that controls the areas of making and using the most difficult tools. One of the oldest known tools are flakes that belongs to West Turkana, Kenya, dating back 3.3 million years ago. The following ancient stone tools come from Gona, Ethiopia, and are considered to be the origin of Oldowan technology. These tools began about 2.6 million years ago. Homo livestock were found near Oldowan tools, and their age was observed at 2.3 million years, suggesting that Homo species may have developed and used these tools. It does happen but at the moment it doesn’t show solid evidence.

This unique anatomical feature distinguishes humans from chimpanzees and other non-human nests, and is not seen in human remains for more than 1.8 million years.

Current Covid-19 Mutations

Viruses are constantly changing through mutations, and new strains of the virus are expected to develop over time. Sometimes new ones appear and disappear. Sometimes, new alternatives emerge and continue. Many strains of the virus that cause COVID-19 have been documented in the United States and around the world during this epidemic.

The virus that causes COVID-19 is a type of coronavirus, a large family of viruses. Coronaviruses are called crown-like spikes in their respective areas. Scientists monitor changes in the virus, including changes in spikes on the surface of the virus. These studies, including genetic analysis of the virus, help scientists understand how mutations can affect the spread of the virus and what happens to infected people.

Many variants of the virus that cause COVID-19 are spreading worldwide and in the United States. In collaboration with the SARS-CoV-2 Interagency Group (SIG), the CDC has established 3 SARS-CoV-2 categories under consideration: Variant of Interest (VOI), Variant of Concern (VOC), and Variant of High Consequence (VOHC).

Does Covid mutate?

B.1.1.7: This variant was first observed in the US in December 2020. It was first discovered in the UK.

B.1.351: This variety first appeared in the US at the end of January 2021. It was first discovered in South Africa in December 2020.

P.1: This exception was first discovered in the US in January 2021. P.1 was first identified for travelers from Brazil, who were tested during a routine check-up at an airport in Japan, in early January.

B.1.427 and B.1.429: These two species were first identified in California in February 2021 and were classified as VOCs in March 2021.

These varieties appear to spread more easily and faster than other species, which can lead to more COVID-19 cases. The increase in the number of cases will put serious strain on health care services, leading to more hospitalizations, and more likely deaths.

To date, research suggests that antibodies produced by vaccines in terms of vaccination currently recognize these variants. This is being investigated and further studies are being done. Adhering to the intensified and comprehensive strategies to reduce public health, such as vaccination, weight loss, the use of masks, hand hygiene, and isolation and isolation, are important to reduce the spread of the virus that causes COVID-19 and protect public health.

Double Mutant Covid Variant

Double Mutant variant from India

Health officials in Israel on Tuesday reported that the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine was less effective compared to the potentially dangerous Indian variant of coronavirus that was rapidly spreading to the most important Covid-19 sites in India and considered the world’s second most devastating wave.
The Indian B.1.617 or separate “mutant double” carries two variants including the L452R and E484Q which were previously separated from the other variants but never combined in one variant.

The L425R mutations that have been observed with a rapidly spreading variety in California can be reported to increase the binding capacity of viral spike proteins in human cells, making them more readily available and may also increase viral replication.
Experts in India have expressed concern about the discovery of double-variable volatility as almost 60% of all positive conditions in India’s Covid-19, Maharashtra, are due to variants of B.1.617.

Variations in this regard have been found in several countries including the UK, the U.S., Israel, Australia, New Zealand, Germany and several others causing travel restrictions or advice.

What is Double Mutation?

The Indian B.1.617 or separate “mutant double” carries two variants including the L452R and E484Q which were previously separated from the other variants but never combined in one variant. Researchers are still trying to answer two key questions about the dual variance of variables. Is it more lethal than other types and are the existing vaccines against it? According to Bloomberg, L452R mutations have been well studied in the U.S. and have been shown to increase transmission by 20 percent and reduce antibody activity by more than 50%. This could mean the ineffectiveness of the vaccine, but reports from Israel suggest that at least one of the vaccines still provides protection against it. There are no data on the violence of diversity, and while India has seen a rise in deaths from Covid-19 it has been accompanied by the same big speaker in new cases. Citing clinical anecdotes, a specialist Maharastra Covid Task Force told Indian Express that the variant could spread quickly but may not be as strong and does not cause much hospitalization. He argues that the high prevalence of the virus has led to the full growth of hospitals, thus burdening health infrastructure. However, this concept in particular is anecdotal.

Triple Mutation variant proved as Covid Battle

Triple Mutant in India
credit: https//

With India reporting about three cases of lakh deaths and more than 2,000 deaths in 24 hours, the biggest escalation since the outbreak, has transformed the new mutation of the COVID virus as a new challenge.

After a double conversion, it has now changed three times, meaning that three different types of Covid, which include different constructions, have been found in some parts of the country.

Countries such as Maharashtra, Delhi and West Bengal are believed to have three cases of mutant crimes. Scientists believe that new surgeons around the world are driven by new mutations. “This is a highly contagious variant. It makes more people sick faster,” said Madhukar Pai, a professor of infectious diseases at McGill University.

“We must continue to vaccinate. Therefore we need to understand the disease. But we need a series of battles,” Dr Pai told NDTV. That poses a major challenge in India, where genetic sequence is performed in less than one percent of cases.

According to Dr. Pai, delays in the detection of doubled genetic mutations are likely to contribute to the current outbreak.

Covid-19 Diagnostic testing and Evaluation

A COVID-19 diagnostic test was performed to determine if you were currently infected with SARS-CoV-2, a virus that causes coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19).

Food and Drug Administration in the U.S. The FDA has approved the following tests for COVID-19 infection:

PCR testing. Also called cellular testing, this COVID-19 test detects viral genetic material using a lab process called polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The liquid sample is collected by inserting a long nasal swab (nasopharyngeal swab) into your nose and taking the fluid behind your nose or by using a short nasal swab (mid-turbinate swab) for sampling. In some cases, a long swab is inserted behind your throat (oropharyngeal swab), or you can spit out a tube to produce a saliva sample. Results may be available in minutes if they are analyzed on site or within a few days – or more in areas with delayed testing – if sent to an external lab. PCR tests are more accurate when done properly by a health care professional, but a quick test may miss some cases.
Antigen testing. This COVID-19 test detects certain proteins in the virus. Using a long nose swab to get a fluid sample, some antigen tests can produce results in minutes. Some may be posted on the analysis board. A good antigen test result is considered accurate if the instructions are followed carefully, but there is a greater chance of side effects – which means you may be infected but have side effects. Depending on the situation, the doctor may recommend a PCR test to confirm the negative results of the antigen test.

One thought on “Anthropology: History and Evolution of Human Beings

  1. Silav. Ez pir pê keyfxweş bûm kû malperek weha dîtî.. Ez bûm şopîner û dê bo heval û hogirên min jî bibe çavkanîyek. Pirsekê jî dixwazim li vir bikim : gelo ev mijarên zanistî ên kû li malperîde tên amade kirin, wek “peresendî, bîyolojî” wel pirtûk jî lê her dîsa bi kurdî dikarim bi dest xwe ve bînim ? Heker hinek pêşniyarên we hebin wekî pirtûkên bi kurdî(werger bin yan orjînal bin) ez ê pir keufxweş bin. Rêz û silav, her kebin bi vê keda xwe ya giring. (ji bo pêşnîyaran hûn dikarin ji vir min agehdar bikin, gelek spas)

Leave a Reply