Canadian Anthropology and indigenous tribes

Canadian Anthropology: Multiculturally Diverse Origins

Canadian Anthropology is about its cultural diversity. It ranges from indigenous customs to European blend, ancient rituals to modern trends.

The culture of Canada can be summarised as a progressive, multicultural hotspot of diverse origin. Canadian populace is mixed up of immigrants of different nationalities.

Canada has been through French colonization as well as British colonization which led to expanding its diversity.

Various French artists traveled to Canada during the French colonial period in the nation’s history. Mostly due to being commissioned to work on churches of the province.

This eventually led to the artistic awakening of the province. From neoclassical style to romanticism and realism, different artists borough with them different schools of thought.

The first nation people of Canada had their own Indigenous culture and artistic variety, however, thousands of years before the first invaders.

The cultural anthropology of Canada comprises artistic, social, musical, culinary, literary, satire, and political components.

Close proximity to the United States, as well as the absence of a language barrier between the two, has worked to increase decrease the cultural gap between the two.

American culture bled into the Canadian lifestyle, as it did to many other countries. Canadian constitution actively seeks to assimilate immigrants and offer them a hospitable environment.

The indigenous culture of Canada

This blog on Canadian anthropology explores the people and their culture and customs, festivals, and history relating them to their country.

Indigenous Canadian CULTURE , Anthropology
by Havard Political Review

The indigenous people of Canada, are sometimes also referred to as, First people, Native Canadians, Indians, Eskimos, and Aboriginals.

While some names are still in trend, the titles, “Indians, Eskimos & Aboriginals” are considered a slur.

If you ever meet a person of indigenous history, you should be careful not to call them any of the above-mentioned slurs.

The best way you can address them is by asking them their name and not making distinctions based on skin color in the first place.

The first people of Canada settled around Bluefish Caves and Old Crow flats when they first arrive here.

Some tools, engravings, weapons, and other artifacts found during excavations depict the relevant age of any site.

The colonial period brought with it the origin of the metis culture. The colonization periods of both French and British empires brought with them their own changes.

Mixed blood people originated around the 17th century as the interactions of the first people and Europeans increased.

Despite various attempts to promote indigenous origin people in recent times, history has left an impact not so easily reversed.

From the late 19th to early 20th century, the first people of Canada weren’t allowed to practice their religious beliefs.

Their festivals weren’t celebrated. They weren’t even allowed the artistic freedom of indigenous culture. It wasn’t until the late 1950s that this changed.

A few popular artists arose from the first people. Who paved the way for artistic freedom of the people of indigenous origin.

These artists reinvented ancient art styles and highlighted the cultural significance of indigenous culture. (Bill Reid, Mungo Martin, Norval Morisseau)

This eventually led to the old laws being scrapped and much more progressive amendments in the constitution.

During the 2016 census, it was discovered that barely 4.9% of the Canadian populace were of Indigenous descent.

The Indigenous People Jargons of Canadian Anthropology

Indigenous Canadian people nomenclature and anthropology
by culture trip

This can be a bit confusing for you, but try to keep up.

The Constitution of Canada uses the term “Aboriginal people” in section 35 of the constitution act, 1982. So that might make you feel like it’s okay to use the same, no?


The term has fallen out of favor with the indigenous people communities. Rather than. Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous people, is being used sometimes.

The term Indians was replaced back in 1970 with First Nations. However, if you want to be more thorough, then know that First Peoples can be used as a replacement for any and all indigenous groups. Some of the indigenous groups are; First Nations, Inuit, and Metis.


With time, mindsets change people change and so do the terms used to refer to those people.

The native might have been a perfectly fine wed used back in old days, but now, it’s not.

“Native” is now specifically used to depict the indigenous people residing inside the United States presently.

The term “Native Canadians” has fallen out of favor since the 1980s.

It shouldn’t be used for other reasons as well. You must have noticed that sometimes, people tend to introduce themselves as being a native of this or that country.

It doesn’t indicate that they are indigenous people of their country, rather just the fact that they reside in that country.

This can be a confusing state of affairs, so it is better to keep away from using “native” term to identify indigenous people.


Legally the word “Indian” is still used in matters related to law and constitution. In practice? Not so much.

Indian, used In constitution declares that Intuit people were not considered a part of the Indian distinction.

The word is considered offensive to use amongst the local public. Whether or not you are talking to an indigenous person, try to make a habit of avoiding the word.


The term Eskimo has long been replaced with “Inuit”. The use of the word Eskimo is considered quite offensive, that is why I suggest you do a bit of research about Canadian anthropology before going on your trip.

Canadian anthropology of Indigenous Languages

Indigenous tribes, Canadian Anthropology
by mother jones

The majority of the Canadian populace speaks English and French. This is due to the influence of the French and European colonial periods.

However less the population of first people of the land remains, there are 13 different languages in practice by Indigenous people of Canada.

11 of those languages are orally spoken and 2 of them are sign languages. It is considered that only the top 3 indigenous languages with most speakers, namely, Inuktitut, Ojibwe, and Cree stand a chance to survive for long in future.

Visual Art of Canada

Indigenous Canadian Arts

European artist’s involvement had a major influence over Canadian anthropology in due time. They may have brought with them the neoclassical and other kinds of art styles, but the artistic expression was not a foreign concept to the indigenous people.

Indigenous people of the province were creating art for centuries before the colonial overtaking by the Europeans.

European art of the era centered around sculptures and religious paintings. In contrast to the above, Indigenous art culture focused on shamanic creations, decorative carvings, and the philosophical components of their beliefs.

Top 5 festivals of Canada (Economic impact wise)

Toronto Caribbean Carnival

Calgary Stampede


Pacific National Exhibition

Pride Toronto

Top 5 cultural festivals in Canada

Calgary stampede

Carnival de Québec

Festival du Voyageur

Northern lights festival

Festival Western de Saint-Tite

Top 5 Dance Festivals in Canada

Canada dance festival

Canada ballet festival

Festival TransAmériquea

Vancouver international dance festival

Thrill the world

Music & Dance of Canadian Anthropology

Indigenous music, Canadian anthropology
by vibe 105

The musical expression of indigenous groups of Canada is usually accompanied by folk dance as well.

In the ancient times of the indigenous history, it was mostly about Shamanic rituals, Ceremonial dances, and Cultural festivals. These were the times that indigenous music could be expressed.

Indigenous musical instruments didn’t use to be elaborate designs. They used whatever they had available on them.

For example, drumsticks of wood or antlers, drums of animal hides, horns, and gourds were used as rattles, which were decorated for use.

The musical tools made up of natural components acted as a theme for the music, the music set the mood for a dance, and the faces were performed at ceremonies and festivals.

After the European colonization, the musical culture of Canada rapidly swelled in diversity.

At present, Canadian musical culture is a perfect blend of English, French and Indigenous components.

The music scene and musical culture predominant in Canadian anthropology comprise of performing arts centers, radio centers, TV music channels, and religious components.

The music of Canada has been heavily inspired by American musical culture. Well, you can’t really put all the blame on the close proximity of the two nations.

The absence of a language barrier between the two, as well as the heavy popularity of American culture, is also a factor behind the same.

Top 7 Richest Canadian Musicians

According to a report in Feb 2020, these are some of the Canadian music artists with the highest net worth.

Celine Dion

Justine Beiber


Shania Twain

The Weeknd

Neil Young

Michael Bublé

Avril Lavigne

Canadian media sector

The media sector of Canada is quite competent and well developed. However, its neighboring country and the burgeoning Hollywood industry dwarfs it in its shadow.

Despite the high volume of media import from Hollywood by the consumers of the province, national media industries remain profitable industries still.

However, that may b because the Canadian government seeks to put restrictions on foreign media, which helps the local industry remain profitable.

Recently the stance of the Canadian government softened considerably in regards to the indigenous populace and minorities.

There are currently provisions in place to let the minorities have their say in the national media industry.

Top 5 Nationwide Holidays in Canadian Anthropology

New year’s day- January 1

Good Friday- between March 20- April 23(variable)

Canada Day- July 1

Labour Day- first Monday of Sept

Christmas Day- Dec 25

Top 5 fringe festivals in Canada

Calgary fringe festival, Canadian anthropology
by anyday guide

Atlantic fringe festival

Calgary fringe festival

Edmonton fringe festival

Island fringe festival

Ottawa fringe festival

Top 5 literary festivals in Canada

Banff Mountain Book festival

Blue metropolis

Eden Mills Writer’s festival

The Frye festival

Vancouver writers festival

Sports in Canada

Canadian anthropology, Ice hockey
by international para Olympic community

If you are a sports enthusiast, a sports newsreader, or even have just watched a few movies related to Canada, you must know about the importance of ice hockey in their culture.

Some of the other top sports enjoyed by Canadians are box lacrosse, Canadian football, curling, and ringette.

Yes, of course, soccer, baseball, basketball, and soccer have their own place in Canada. However, everybody knows about them, so.. Let’s move on to the Canadian specialty, Ice Hockey!

In Canada, Ice hockey is just called hockey, just like Chinese food is just called food in China.

It’s the most played sport in Canada during winter, and Canada continues to be quite successful in international Ice hockey competitions as well.

Unlike most nations, Canada has two official sports. One for winter, one for summer.

During the winter, Hockey is the national winter sport. During the summer months, however, playing Ice hockey isn’t really feasible in most places, so lacrosse is the official summer sport of Canada.

Despite lacrosse being the national summer sport, it’s Canadian football that’s the second most popular sport if the province.

As you must already know that winter is the basic mood of the Canadian climate for most of the year, this led to the nation acquiring a strong position in Winter Olympics.

The delectable Canadian Cuisine

Canadian anthropology, cuisines
by travel with bender

Canadian cuisine is mostly known for its diversity. You will find distinct differences from one region to another.

It is said that due to the distinctly different climate and cultural history of a few regions of the province, the food culture of those places stands apart entirely as well.

There are some cuisines in those unique sites that you won’t get to taste anywhere else either.

Top 5 Canadian Cuisine contenders

Quebec-made Poutine

French-Canadian butter tarts

Montreal style smoked meat

The indigenous specialty of fried bread “bannock”

Maple Syrup

Top 5 Food festivals in Canada

Annapolis Valley Apple Blossom Festival

Brighton Applefest

Canada’s Largest Ribfest

Eat! Vancouver

Exploits Valley Salmon Festival

Canadian anthropology is about its cultural diversity. Whether it be its unique food recipes of distinct local specialties, indigenous art, music, and dance form, French-Canadian cultural blend, and British neoclassical sculptures and paintings in old churches.

If you plan to travel to Canada, make your plans based on the season. While summer season comes with different things to do specialties of a mostly cold climate nation, winter is where the best things to see in Canada occur.

Join the festivals, go be a part of the local happenings or enjoy local food at some hidden gem of a local joint.

Take a trip to Banff national park and soak in the hot springs or enjoy the adventure with skiing. Summertimes comes with horse riding opportunities in resorts while you relish the visit to natural sceneries.

You will not tire of things to do on your trip to Canada. So, what are you waiting for? Now that you are familiar with the cultural components that you should be aware of about the province, it’s time to start making those plans.

Go on now voyager, have fun, happy travels!



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