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An Overview of the History, Culture, and Economy of Guadeloupe

Columbus named the island in honor of the Spanish sanctuary Santa Maria de Guadalupe in Extremadura. Guadeloupe is an archipelago of eight inhabited islands in the Lesser Antilles between the tropical Atlantic Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The two main islands of Basseterre and Grande-Terre are separated by the Rivieres Sale channel. Capital Basseterre is located in the west wing.

Introduction to Guadeloupe

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The Pointeá Pitre shopping center is located in the east wing. Other so-called “subordinate” islands are Marie-Galante, Désirade, Petite Terre Islands (unmanned), Santo Islands, Saint Barthelemy, and the northern half of Saint Martin. On an estimate, the total area is about 1,705 square kilometers. The island of Grande Terre is mainly limestone and consists of plateaus, plains, and hills (morning). Basseterre is a volcanic rock with rainforests and alpine forests. The climate is humid and tropical, with a dry season from January to May and a rainy season from June to December.


The total population in 1997 was found to be around 428,044. Additionally, the population density was estimated to be somewhere around 650 per square kilometer. It also had a growth rate of 1.5% at that time. Until recently, population growth was stable due to high fertility and low mortality due to improved hygiene and medication. Due to the young population and high unemployment rate, the government attempted to manage the population between 1961 and 1981 through subsidized family planning programs and immigration policies. The majority of the population is of African descent, with a significant minority coming from the East Indies and a small group of Shirorebanonians and white Creole (Brunei). The city around the island is home to the distinctive whites of La Desirade and Saint Barthelemy, as well as the fair-skinned Santo inhabitants.

Language Links

French is the official language of administration and education, but Guadalupians speak Creole, written in French, dating back to the era of colonization and slavery. During the 1970s and 1980s, Creole became an important symbol of the nationalist demand for independence from France. Today, all walks of life recognize the value of Creole in reviving culture. Other languages play a symbolic role for ethnic minorities. Shiroliban residents regularly listen to Arab radio stations, and Tamil chants and prayers exist in Hindu religious ceremonies.

Overview of the history of  Guadeloupe

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Before Columbus, the Arawak and Kalinago people later migrated to the area from the coast of South America. European exploration led to the conquest, colonization, eradication of indigenous peoples, the introduction of sugar cane farming, and a plantation economy based on slave labor in Africa.

Under French colonial rule from 1635, Guadeloupe was shaped by briefly British-occupied French politics. The first abolition of slavery and the almost complete elimination of white slavocracy(“A plantocracy, also known as a slavocracy, is a ruling class, political order or government composed of plantation owners”; during the French Revolution had far-reaching social and economic consequences. Following the complete abolition of slavery in 1848, the labor and capitalist crisis led to the introduction of contract labor into India, the entry of urban capitals, and the centralization of industry.

Modern history

During the 20th century, an effort to correct the social, cultural, and political climate was made by local people of color. With the approval of the assimilation law of March 19, 1946, Guadeloupe became a French overseas department. This process has led to a large-scale change in France’s administrative and political superstructure, the education system, and social security. Integration with France has resulted in a decline in both exports and subsistence agriculture, growth in the service sector, increased unemployment, large-scale immigration, and increased tensions between Guadeloupe and the capital, from France. In 1974, Guadeloupe was designated a pioneer in decentralization.

Urban planning and architecture in Guadeloupe

Local architecture and urban planning are heavily influenced by colorism. In fact, a unique architectural style has been created in the countryside. A colonial villa with a magnificent gallery, patio, and ventilated plastic windows and a two or three-room house (Creole cassette) with kitchen, garden, and garden. These log cabins were replaced with one- or two-story concrete storm-proof houses.

As cities and industrial areas expanded and suburbs were created, the urban culture and traditional dichotomy between rural and urban landscapes became less visible. Urban architecture has evolved, from 17th and 19th-century French colonial military, church, and administrative architecture to public buildings in the 1930s and post-colonial buildings. The war as social housing and the modern style influenced by local architects are in line with modern buildings.

Food culture and basic economy in Guadeloupe

Sea food market
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Food shows the cultural influence of Native Americans, African Americans, Indians, and French. Traditional foods include tapioca, roots, bread, avocado, green bananas, peas, okra, curry meat, cod, fish, and tropical fruits. Creole cuisine uses peppers and spices but is influenced by French cuisine and imported foods.

Festive cooking customs

Special ceremonial dishes include pork, black pudding, spicy peas, lamb punch (Christmas), cod, callaloo crab, rice (Easter and Pentecost), cakes, and shodo (wedding, baptism, first communion), banana with goat curry, etc. Leaves (Indian ritual).

The basic economy in Guadeloupe

Agriculture decreased significantly as a percentage of GDP. Commerce and services currently represent 77.9% of the total economy. Agricultural productivity is limited by natural disasters, lack of crop diversification, and rural and agricultural migration. The main industry (agriculture and fishing) employs less than 8% of the active workforce.

Land Ownership

In 1996, 30% of the total area was cultivated, with sugarcane and banana as the main crops. Most of the farms registered in 1989 were small, but large farms occupied a quarter of the total cultivated area. Most farms registered in 1989 were small. Agricultural land is privately owned or co-owned by crop rights and leases, and the number of farmers and arable land is decreasing. Smallholder farmers produce for local markets, and many in the countryside maintain small vegetable and fruit orchards.

Trade and commercial activities

Weakness in the production system has caused serious trade imbalances. Furthermore, in 1997, exports accounted for only 7% of the cumulative imports. This was further compensated by the transfer of public funds from France. Imports and exports are mainly carried out in France, with the European Union as a secondary partner. Guadeloupe mainly exports agricultural products and processed foods. Most goods, production equipment, and most foods are imported.

Industrial production is still low, mainly represented by SMEs. Production is mainly related to food processing and energy. Almost half of the industrial production comes from construction and public works. The 1997 workforce consisted of 125,900 employees and 52,700 unemployed. Work is increasingly concentrated in the civil service sector. A big problem is youth unemployment, with young people aged 15-29 accounting for 3% of the unemployed.

Social structure and politics in Guadeloupe

The social structure of Guadeloupe
by France fr

Social stratification is based on education, vocational guidance, culture, and wealth. Income inequalities widened as civil servants’ salaries increased and the consumption of imported and luxury goods increased. Status indicators relate to consumption patterns and include cars, housing types, and sizes, leisure activities such as travel and sports abroad, dress styles, and languages.

Political life

Political power is in the constituency designated by the President of France and in two constituencies. The Minister of Foreign Affairs and Territory belongs to the French Ministry of the Interior. There are

3 states (constituents), in which the two legislative heads of the local assembly are directly elected by universal suffrage. The regional council is the most important local council and the influence of the general or county council is dwindling. Each municipality has an elected mayor and a city council. Two senators and four deputies sit in the French National Assembly.

Political representation in Guadeloupe

Political parties are distinguished primarily by their positions on national and social issues. The party’s orientation follows three main trends: anti-assimilation/regionalism, autonomy, and independence. Some political parties have official links to traditional French right-wing parties. The other side is the local squad, and the far left is the Trotskyist. The anti-assimilation left is divided into a center-left devoted to autonomy and an extreme left dedicated to independence and “socialism”.

The discussion of island status issues focuses on the advisory possibilities of integrating the two complexes into a local complex. In December 1999, the presidents of the regional councils of Guadeloupe, Martinique, and French Guyana united in favor of autonomy. Personality is very important in politics, where the relationship between client and family plays an important role.

Social affairs

Guadeloupe is governed by French law and is part of the French judicial system. Each municipality has local and national police and gendarmes. In the past, crimes were limited to domestic or local conflicts and were often dealt with outside the courtroom. Vandalism, theft, and drug trafficking are increasingly common due to economic development and growing class divisions. Informal methods of social control include gossip, public defamation, and the use of witchcraft.  The French army maintains its presence and has a national guard.

Relative gender roles

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by Giraud

Over the past decades, women’s occupations have changed as agriculture supplanted the state-funded economy. Although the number of women in employment is increasing, unemployment has a disproportionate impact on women and young people. With the collapse of manufacturing, most women work in management, education, health care, services, and business. Women’s access to employment is lower than that of men. Women are more likely to be underemployed, with lower wages and fewer managers.

The relative status of women and men

Relative gender roles, along with race and class, are an important indicator of status. Women are often the breadwinners of the family but have little power outside of the family. Male dominance continues to be demonstrated by the low percentage of women’s political representation and the alienation of women in the labor market. Feminism and women’s reproductive rights have just been established with the establishment of the Women’s Association.

 Household units and inheritance

Family and household organizations are strongly influenced by socioeconomic status. In many units of the country, women occupy a central position. There are few or no men, and the bond between mother and child is strong. Marriages are highly volatile, often with polygamy in terms of sex and a high percentage of children born out of legal marriage.

The Western model of a stable nuclear family is often united by marriage and coexists with the maternal model. As fertility management is strengthening and the number of teenage mothers is decreasing, there are other trends such as fewer marriages, more divorces, and cohabitation patterns later in the life cycle and more single mothers are occurring. Parents’ family.

Inheritance under French law, which distinguishes legitimate children with full inheritance rights, was found to be disadvantageous in the presence of legal heirs and was born “naturally” from unmarried parents. The child does not have the right to inherit from the father.

Socialization and education

Children are cared for and cared for by their families and loved ones since their birth. Often, siblings, grandmothers, or other adults in the family are actively involved in caring for the baby, especially if the mother is working or is a single parent. Baptism occurs in the first few months of life.

Parenting depends on the type of family, family members, family relationships, socioeconomic class, and social background. Children are actively involved in the early stages of family life and have different responsibilities depending on age and gender. Obedience, kindness, education, and goodness are important and severe discipline is often punished. A compulsory study from 2 to 16 years. Education is highly regarded as a means of social mobility. However, the school system is characterized by a high failure rate, students with poor grades, and students at grade level and below.

Higher studies

The University of the Antilles Guyane operates a campus in Guadeloupe. The West Indies have higher education in France, which is considered top-notch.

Guaderu Pean is known for its hospitality-focused on food, drink, music, and dancing. Informal conversations are generally conducted in Creole. People greet each other by kissing and shaking hands. The lifestyle supports a wide range of social relationships, fun and entertaining interactions, and flirtation and flirtation between men and women. Traditional values emphasize the “reputation” of men and the “respect” of women.

Religious beliefs

The Catholic Church is a dominant organized religion with its doctrines, rituals, social organization, history, and calendar. Since World War II, Protestants such as the Evangelists, the Second Coming, and Baptists have competed with the Catholic Church for a congregation. African cosmology, mythology, and theological systems are no longer present, but magical and superstitious religious practices are still common in Africa. Many still believe in the power of supernatural beings with good and evil, spirit and power. Hindu religious ceremonies have been revived in some of the East Indian peoples.

Religious ceremonies in Catholic churches, the priests of the city are often more numerous than in the West Indies. Liberation theology is practiced by local priests, but most priests are conservative. Laity also frequently uses the services of quimboiseurs (witches) for mental, social, and illness advice. Marabou (French-speaking African witch) is active in urban areas.


Villages, towns, and cities have their own churches and cemeteries to commemorate the dead on All Saints’ Day (November 1st). There are Hindu temples in Capester Belau and small temples in the countryside. Some cultures have funeral celebration practices. Funerals are held as usual, with the dead celebrated with drums, puzzles, stories, and rum. For East Indians, funerals are usually followed by a period of fasting.

Cultural significance in anthropology

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Creole, drum music, cooking, and carnival are aligned with symbols of French hegemony, such as the tricolor flag and the French national anthem.

The revolutionary hero Louis Delgre, who committed suicide in 1802 instead of regaining slavery, is said to have begun to form national consciousness. The first independence movement has its roots in the French West Indies student organization and the post-WWII decolonization movement. The Guadeloupe National Organization Group was formed in the mid-1960s.

The Independence Party was formed in the early 1970s, the Guadeloupe Liberation League was formed, and in 1981 the popular movement of Independence Guadeloupe was established. Nationalist activities focus on statements on political protests, trade union strikes, election abstentions, and cultural differences. The slight support of nationalists in the 1980s was eroded by decentralization.

There is essentially no tension in relations between the black majority and the East Indian minority. Due to the growing integration of France and the growing presence of the European Union, politics and culture remain a space for debate.


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