Indonesia officially the Republic of Indonesia, country located in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It contains more than 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guinea. Indonesia is the largest island nation in the world and the 14th largest country in the world, with 1,904,569 square kilometers (735,358 square kilometers). With over 270 million people, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world and the largest Muslim nation in the world. Java, the world’s most populous island, is home to more than half of the world’s population.
Indonesia is a presidential, constitutional republic with a elected legislature. It has 34 provinces, five of which have special positions. The country’s capital, Jakarta, is the second most populous city in the world. The country shares international borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighboring countries include Singapore, Vietnam, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands). Although densely populated and densely populated, Indonesia has vast desert areas that support one of the world’s highest ecosystems.
Indnonesian Women in Bomb Attack
Women have played a significant role in increasingly aggressively attacking Indonesia in development that reflects the influence of ISIL, analysts said. When Zakiah Aini, a 25-year-old university graduate, entered the Indonesian National Police headquarters in Jakarta and fired a shotgun on the last day of March, it was initially widely reported, and he probably thought, that the perpetrator was human.
But in recent years, a growing number of Indonesian women have been involved in violent attacks on the islands, particularly following the return of ISIL (ISIS) trained personnel to Syria and the formation of ISIL-related groups such as Jamaah Ansharut Daulah (JAD).
“ISIS has created a permit for the inclusion of women in forward-looking jobs,” Judith Jacob, a terrorist and security analyst at the London School of Economics, told Al Jazeera. “By encouraging opportunistic attacks and regular calls for fans to do their best, it opens the door for women to participate more quickly than under the law and for regulatory bodies that keep women out.”
As well as the attack on Aini at police headquarters, which resulted in her being shot dead by police at the scene, the Sacred Heart of Jesus Cathedral in Makassar, Sulawesi was attacked the week before Easter by two suicide bombers who had been married for just seven months. In 2018, a church in Surabaya on the island of Java was similarly attacked by a couple with their four children, while another group of husband and wife attacked a large church in Jolo in the Philippines in 2019. At least 20 people were killed in the attack and many were injured.
Why women are getting involved?
All the women involved in the attack were thought to be linked to JAD, sometimes called “Southeast Asia ISIL”. According to Jacob, it is important not to dismiss such attacks or to assume that the women involved were simply following male orders.
“Obviously there are many dimensions to this, but the first thing that should be removed from this approach, is the negative, sexual perception that these women are being lured or forced to participate,” she told Al Jazeera. “These women are active and determined participants and have always been an integral part of the Islamic war in Indonesia. The difference now is switching to more active or ‘front-line’ positions. ” Following the attack on police headquarters, National Police Commander General Listyo Sigit Prabowo described Aini as “a lone wolf”, although in a letter to his parents and siblings, he included a short manifesto in which he was angry at Islamic institutions “such as free elections, anti-Syrian banks and and government officials, including former Jakarta governor Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, better known as Ahok, who was arrested for blasphemy in 2017. He also posted an ISIL flag on Instagram before the attack and bought a weapon used by a man in Aceh province who was a member of JAD and was convicted of terrorism.
Noor Huda Ismail, a former member of the stubborn Darul Islam group who has founded the Institute for International Peace Building and conducts denominational programs and workshops across Indonesia, told Al Jazeera that social media has played a role in women’s violence. “Historically in Indonesia, women played a major role and were not directly involved in terrorism even if they were part of a terrorist family,” she said. “There is no single reason why women engage in terrorism but they are mostly driven by secret and emotional reasons.”
This could include issues such as retaliation, redemption, or relationship issues such as the prospect of finding a partner in a state of travel to Syria, he added. “Radicalization is not gender neutral and deals differently with men and women. We need to look at gender as a construct of society and not in biology. For example, the idea that men are violent and that women are peaceful. ”However, he warns, studying sex within complex groups is something that is always in its infancy.
A Sign of Despair
A former JAD member, speaking to Al Jazeera on condition of anonymity, said that while at the ISIL rally it seemed acceptable for a woman to take part in a group attack to be considered an enemy “the decision to get involved or not depends on the party planning any such attack”. The JAD group of which he was a member “did not want to involve women in the previous attacks while the JAD group in Surabaya included women as part of its plan to bomb the 2018 bombing”.
She adds that in addition to the psychological impact on such attacks on society, female assailants are used as a propaganda tool. “The involvement of women in previous attacks is allowed in ISIS rallies and is used to burn morality,” she said. “The idea is to spread the word that if women also try to give their lives, what about men?” However, there may be unusual and practical reasons for a more active women’s role. “We have seen the clear call for ISIS for women to participate in jihad against the enemy back in 2017, which you can see as a decline in ISIS women’s emergence, but there is a great need they had in the background and need to meet all aspects of the so-called caliphate to survive,” Jacob said .
Since the beginning of the year, Indonesia’s anti-terrorism unit, Densus 88, has attacked dozens of Indonesians and arrested more than 100 suspects, including Munarman, former secretary general of the banned Islamic Defenders Front (FPI), and three other FPI officials. in April and May respectively. Local authorities have also tightened security on the islands since the March bombings in Makassar and the Jakarta attacks, amid speculation that Aini could easily enter the National Police Headquarters because she was a woman.
“The call from ISIS came at a good time when it was being opened and security forces were slow to get women’s power to plan and participate in the attack,” Jacob said. “In the Indonesian context, these messages reach a receptive audience and those working on a hot network after years of police raids and surveillance.”
Group of Islamic Defendors Front banned
The hard-working group, formed in 1998, is led by controversial pastor Rizieq Shahib arrested this month. Indonesia has banned the controversial, but politically influential, Islamic Defenders ’Front, about three weeks after its leader was arrested for violating coronavirus laws, according to the country’s security minister. Mahfud MD said on Wednesday that the group, best known for its Indonesian acronym FPI, had been officially released, working immediately, in the face of allegations of surveillance and terrorist links.
The FPI is led by firefighter Islamist leader Rizieq Shihab, an Indonesian political activist who returned from exile in Saudi Arabia in November and was arrested in Jakarta earlier this month after appearing at several rallies despite coronavirus border crossings.
“The government has banned FPI activities and will suspend any FPI activities,” Mahfud said. “FPI no longer has legal status.” FPI was founded in 1998, establishing itself as a vigilant and “moral guardian” group, while gaining notoriety for barricades and nightclubs, as well as young Indonesians. It gained political prominence in 2016, as Rizieq announced major protests that led to the prosecution and conviction of former Jakarta governor Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, better known as Ahok, on “defamatory” charges.
Shortly afterwards, Rizieq found himself the victim of a law on pornography in Indonesia – a law enthusiastically endorsed by the FPI – in connection with the kind messages allegedly sent between him and a female supporter. Rizieq denied any wrongdoing and later left Indonesia for exile in Saudi Arabia.
The charges have been dropped and he has since returned in November to a series of high-profile calls for “moral reform”, sparking a rift with President Joko Widodo’s administration in a Muslim-majority country. Six senior government officials, including the attorney general, the chief of police and the head of anti-terrorism took part in the decision to close the group, Mahfud said.
Deputy Justice Minister Edward Omar Sharif Hiariej told the media that the FPI was banned because about 30 of its leaders, members and members had been convicted of terrorism and because the party was opposed to the country’s vision, Pancasila, which emphasized unity and diversity. . About 90 percent of Indonesians are Muslim, but the country of more than 267 million people has a large following of other religions, including Christianity and Hinduism. Rizieq is already in police custody.
He was arrested a month after he returned, six days after FPI members were killed in a head-on collision with police. The incident is being investigated by an Indonesian human rights organization.
Recrutment via ISIS group
Two terrorist attacks this month have highlighted the growing number of female soldiers in Indonesia, some of which are still being circulated online.
Experts say JAD and al-Qaeda linked to Jemaah Islamiah (JI) target immigrant workers and housewives, with women being ‘screened less’ as ‘safe’.
In January, a 21-year-old Indonesian woman arrived quietly in Semarang, the capital of the Central Java province, where she was met by several non-governmental organizations who drove her to her home 50 miles [80 km] from the Temanggung area.
Dita Siska Millenia was no ordinary commuter.
He had just been released from prison after serving more than two years for aiding and abetting a terrorist act during the May 2018 riots in the West Java maximum security prison of the Mobile Brigade Corp (Brimob). At the time, five juvenile anti-terrorist police officers Disachment 88 were killed by terrorist charges mainly from the Islamic State (Isis) group affiliated with the Jamaah Ansharut Daulah (JAD).
The worst phase of the long-running war began when jihadist Muslims invaded the center of the arena. In April 2013, Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, al-Qaeda’s leader in Iraq, called himself the Caliph of the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, or Islamic State in Iraq and Syria, ISIS). ), seeking to establish a major Islamic state in Iraq and Syria. Capturing the area in the Euphrates region focusing on the city of Ar-Raqqah in eastern Syria where it launched a series of successful projects in Syria and Iraq, expanding control over a wide area bordering the Iraq-Syria border.
The group soon attracted global outrage over a series of cut-off topics and made a lot of money by selling oil on the black market. Money and sophisticated propaganda have also attracted new activists to its flock to carry out a horrific attack on the Western world ~ among them a Russian plane bombing killed 224 people in October 2015 and a series of organized attacks in Paris on November 13, 2015, killing 130. Its success spurred the efforts of the international community; In August 2014, the USA launched air strikes in Iraq to prevent ISIL from crossing the Kurdish region in northern Iraq and to protect Christian and Yazidi communities there, and then to strike against ISIL targets in Syria.
The summer of 2015 brought Russia into conflict, first by sending troops and equipment and then starting air strikes against targets in Syria. Russian officials initially claimed that air strikes were aimed at ISIL, but in reality they were pointing to rebel forces fighting Assad to help him. They launched a massive bombing campaign in the northern city of Aleppo, Syria’s second-largest city after Damascus, which had been under rebel rule since 2012, dropped deadly equipment such as cluster bombs and grenades that killed thousands until Aleppo collapsed three months later in December 2016. At that time , the Assad regime had gained power over the whole country strengthening the consolidation of power. In mid-2018, for the first time in five years, it re-occupied strategic areas around Damascus and Daraa, the birthplace of the revolt, and the southwestern part of Syria.