Jordan: A Historic Glimpse into the Country

Brief Overview

Jordan, an age-old country where human inhabitation has been prevalent since the Paleolithic period, is located along the west borders of Dead Sea. With Read Sea being at its southern side. Syria, Iraq, Palestine, Saudi Arab and Israel happens to be its neighbors. Out of all its cities; Amman has been the center of attraction for a long time because of being very much culturally rich and economic competent.
Although it’s small, still it has an upper middle income economy. The reason also lies in the fact that it has a skilled workforce, it attract major medical tourism in health sector as well as a good destination hub.

HISTORY(EARLY CLASSICAL PERIOD)

  • Dating back first evidences of habitations here is 2,00,000 years Several tools and remains have been found. In fact, even world’s oldest proof of making break was found at one of Jordan’s site.
    Populous agricultural village began here between 10,000–4,500 BC. Ain Ghazal, is one such village of pre-historic times where a lot of evidences have been found.
  • Proper urban setups began establishing themselves as early as the Bronze Age around 4000-1200 BC . Trade definitely kept growing; even with the resource exploitation from other neighboring regions. Ancient Egyptians tried to control few regions until the Iron Age.
    Considered more like tribal groups now; In ancient Jordan three major kingdoms- Ammon, Edom and Moab were powerful after the Iron Age
    With little turmoil initially but leading to the victory of the Roman Empire around 63 BC; the three kingdoms lost its identity and were integrated into part of Romans. The Romans actually ruled for about 4 centuries.
  • From 324-636 AD, Byzantine Empire had complete influence over the region and Christianity soon became the official religion of the state.
  • The place developed a lot during this era and churches were built in most places.
  •  A very landmarked Church – “The Aqaba Church” was built during this time and is the world’s 1st Purpose- built church .

HISTORY(ISLAMIC AND MODERN TIMES,JORDAN)

  •   In 636 AD,the Muslims defeated the Byziantians in the Battle of Yarmouk.A major earthquake occurred causing havoc and after a large section being impoverished for a while; Jordan was ruled by Fatimid Caliphate and Kingdom of Jerusalem.Meanwhile,the capital from one major city here – “Damascus”, been shifted to “Baghdad”.
  • After 1260, Villages in Ayyubids became halts for Muslim pilgrims visitng Mecca.
  • Ottman’s ruled for a while during the early 1500’s, but soon after they moved out voluntarily.
  • Then between 1803-1812; a very orthodox-Islamic  Wahhabi forces occupied for a while but again after sometimes Ottomans re-established themselves.
  • The Ottomans then ruled for a good four century but the resentment towards its strict taxation grew and finally declined during first World War due to the revolt aganist them gain massive support from Arab countries,Britain and France as well.
  • Then the Council of the “League of Nations’ acknowledged Transjordan in September 1922 but it regulated under Britishers for quiet sometimes till 1946 but some sort of autonomy was given.
  • Since 1946 after the “Treaty of London” was sgned,Jordan has been a complete independent country.Even in terms of its political liberation; it stays much ahead of its counterparts.

CLIMATE

Most of the part of Land being arid; it has different climate on two of its side because of Sea in the west and eastern and southern deserts. The main reasons for the climate is the closeness to the Mediterranean Sea,the elevation and the continental breeze. Khamsin is the local word used for the winds blowing here in summers until and unless the wind direction changes.Jordan: Wadi Ramm

ECONOMY

The well-distributed economy of the city is due to the extensive spread of trade and commerce. Even the well-built construction,communication and public utilities makes it economically stable.The official currency here is the Jordanian Dinar.It enjoys its special status in the European Union Js

Foreign relations

Although Israel and Jordan have had few conflicts over time regarding the Christian and Muslim sites in Jerusalem; it has been better since the past.

Jordan is the major founding member of the Arab League and Islamic Co-operation . Being part of the European Neighborhood Policy, it also enjoys elite status there . Arab League got 5 year development aid from the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC)

Military

It was in the year 22 October 1920, that the first Jordan Army was established and called the “Arab Legion “. Now, known as the Jordan Armed Forces; they have always been very efficient during every war. One of the most professional army in that region is considered to be The Royal Jordanian Family with well-trained army, consisting of about  110,000 personnel, is considered to be among the most professional in the region. It also has support from the US,UK and France. Jordan is also known to provide training or groups in Arab countries.

Jordan has always been active member of UN peacekeeping missions. There are troops from the country also working in UN Peace all over the globe. It has played immense role in times of conflict and disaster prone times.

Jordan has also solidrated its presence by joining campaigns and groups against terrorism .

Transportation

Ranked among the countries with good infrastructure and also one of the highest ranked countries in terms of “developing”. The main reason for being this infrastructurally good is that it serves as a busy transit country for goods and services to neighboring nations. There are still base projects going on future vision and development . With three major international airports; it serves as a hub for both travel and trade & commerce. It has major ports also. One of such ports-The “Port of Aqaba” was ranked as the “Best Container Terminal”; it is a gateway for local and international business

Tourism

Tourism plays a great role in Jordan being source of economic growth and employment. Most tourists come here from Arab and European countries. Although there was slight decrease in the number of tourists from 2010-2016 but it started recovering son after. 

PLACES TO SEE IN JORDAN

1.Ajlaun Castle –

https://www.afar.com/places/ajloun-castle
https://www.afar.com/places/ajloun-castle
  • Being one famous tourist attraction, sitting on top of Mount Auf is one remarkable historic castle built by Saladin as a strategic link against invaders.
  • From the castles; Jordan valley can be thoroughly seen.
  • The interior and the monumental design gives historic feels.

2. Gulf of Aqaba-

https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=https%3A%2F%2Fgeographical.co.uk%2Fmedia%2Fk2%2Fitems%2Fcache%2F8f01312079ceed4936f440f6a633a0e2_XL.jpg&imgrefurl=https%3A%2F%2Fgeographical.co.uk%2Fgeopolitics%2Fhotspot%2Fitem%2F1700-hotspot-gulf-of-aqaba&tbnid=_ULRA9zsZI2VIM&vet=12ahUKEwjng8TN1MrvAhU8E7cAHX0bBSIQMygsegUIARCvAg..i&docid=d_jNgZsv5iDGdM&w=1200&h=800&q=Gulf%20of%20Aqaba-%C2%A0&client=safari&ved=2ahUKEwjng8TN1MrvAhU8E7cAHX0bBSIQMygsegUIARCvAg
https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl
  • Being known as one very important center of phosphates and shells export ; the place has the landmarked Aqaba Flagpole; which is the 3rd largest in the world.
  • The scenic view that comes of mountains and blue water is a feast to the eyes.
  • There are also a lot of water-activities to enjoy.

3.Wadi Musa –

http://dontstopliving.net/things-to-do-while-staying-in-wadi-musa-jordan/
  • Spurned near Petra and famous for its houses, shops and restaurant; it is a beautiful town known as the “new Wonder of the World”. Exotic  Cafes and Pubs are added beauty.
  • The ultimate rejuvenation here is the Turkish Bath.
4. Shaumari Wildlife Reserve
http://aristours.com/jordan-sites/shaumari-wildlife-reserve
  • Established in the year 1975, and cited as one of the best tourist places  of natural reserve; this place is abode to endangered species .
  • Tourists can learn about protected environments and desert habitats.
  • There is small zoo available to spot species of animals and birds.

5.The King’s highway

https://atlastours.net/jordan/kings-highway/
  • Dating back to 3000 years ago and connecting Syria to Gulf of Aqaba; it is a very famous  trade route.
  • Tourist can enjoy a lot of country’s his is the most popular trade route in Jordan that connects the Gulf of Aqaba to Syria.
  • A lot of historical sites are on the way here.

6.Azraq Wetland Reserve

https://in.hotels.com/ho720975936/azraq-lodge-azraq-jordan/?modal=dp
  • Created in 1978,for birdwatchers and nature-lover this is one of the best places.
  • Protected migratory birds are kept here along with Museums on its premises that depicts great history of the place and the nearby wetlands.
  • One of its major objectives is to educate visitors.
7.The Baptism Site of Jesus-
https://www.google.com/search?q=The+Baptism+Site+of+Jesus-
  • This is a very famous place; it is the same devoted holy place where baptism was given to Jesus Christ and the Jordan River turned into holy water.
  • Its been a worshipped pilgrimage site ever since; especially after a church was built in the 5th century.
  • Even till date; there are monasteries, chapels and other shrines & churches.

8.Royal Automobile Museum

https://www.google.com/search?q=8.Royal+Automobile+Museum&tbm=isch&ve
  • King Hussein had huge interest in cars and this was built to commemorate that.
  • A place extremely popular among car lovers; the place has a great collection of luxury cars right from 1916.
  • With more than  seventy motorbikes and classic cars on display; it is a  literal haven for car lovers.

9.Pella

https://d1v9pyzt136u2g.cloudfront.net/blog/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/28205801/floor-ruins-Pella-Greece.jpg
  • Known as the “Tabaqit gal” and situated among the rising hills-it is one of the oldest cities of Jordan.
  • It is much like an archaeological favorite because of its richness in antiques and monumental culture.
  • A few Roman baths, theatres and fountains are major attractions here.
  • It can be easily commuted from Amman. During Spring, the place looks amazing with mesmerizing view.

10.Temple of Hercules

https://sites.google.com/site/top10destinationsofancientrome/day-1/aemilian-temple-of-hercules
  • -Located at Citadel Hill’s Peak, this temple offers great view of Amman.
  • The notable feature here is the statue of the giant hand of Hercules.
  • Built under the Geminius Marcianus government ; this place is a must visit if anyone wants to know the past of Amman
11.The Aqaba Fortress –
https://www.google.com/search?q=The+Aqaba
  • Built in the 12th century, and also known as Mamluk Castle ; this fortress reflects the rich Aqaba history from every inch of the castle.
  • The glory of the ancient period can actually be depicted from here.
  • Designed in rectangular shape with protruding towers ; the place is an abode to magnificence.

12.Dead Sea

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HeaJIeLe1SA
  • Famous for its salty water, the mineral-rich mud is world famous with its therapeutic properties.
  • People from all over the world comes here .
  • This mud has multiple uses and is sold widely across many countries.
  • Tourists can definitely enjoy strolling around and playing with the buoyant water

13.Wadi Bin Hamid

https://www.tripadvisor.in/ShowUserReviews-g844610-d4206542-r691274940-
  • Located in Kerak, Jordan; an amazing feel good sightseeing place is the Wadi Bin Hamid.
  • With hanging garden and lush palm trees; the place beholds impressive and enthralling view of natural beauty.
  • People come here for great hiking experience too.

14.Ruins at Umm Qaiz

https://horizonguides.com/jordan/umm-qais
  • With mesmerizing pedestals and amphitheaters; this northern town is much famous for its closeness to the Gadara town.
  • The place offers an amazing view of the Golan Heights.
  • It is famous for its houses, basalt pillars, beautiful tombs, temples, Roman shops, streets etc.

15.Ma’in HotSprings

https://www.uniqhotels.com/ma-hot-springs
  • – Located in a hotel but famous for its amazing thermal waterfall ; this place is enjoyed by thousand of visitors every year.
  • They enjoy the mineral-rich waterfall as well as the other series provided by the hotel.
  • Those services includes – hydro jet bath and shower, underwater massage and mud facial. Located between Madaba and Dead Sea;  and about 246 m below the sea.

Jordan is a must-visit place if someone is a nature-enthusiast and at the same time doesn’t mind diving deep into history. The castles, the reserves, the recreational activities – everything is magical in itself. 

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