Large Czechia Flag carried by the public in a mass of protest in the city

Past and Present Event Conflicts in Czechia

Czech also known by the short form, Czechia. It is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The borders are Austria to the south Germany to the west, Poland to the northeast and Slovakia to the east. The Czech Republic has an area of ​​78,866 square kilometers (30,450 sq mi) of temperate continental climate and oceanic climate. It is a united republic of parliament.


The Duchy of Bohemia under Great Moravia in 1002 was officially recognized as the Empire of the Holy Roman Empire and became an empire in 1198. Following the Mohacs War in 1526, the entire Bohemian Crown was gradually consolidated into the Habsburg Empire. The Bohemian Protestant uprising led to the Thirty Years’ War. After the Battle of White Mountain, the Habsburgs drafted their law. With the dissolution of the Holy Empire in 1806, the lands of the crown became part of the Austrian Empire.

In the 19th century, the Czech lands became more industrialized and in 1918 most of them became part of the First Czechoslovak Republic after the fall of Austria-Hungary after World War I. After the Munich treaty in 1938, Nazi Germany came to power Czech. Czechoslovakia was restored in 1945 and became the communist regime of the Eastern Bloc following the 1948 uprising. In November 1989, the Velvet Revolution abolished communist rule in the country and on January 1, 1993; Czechoslovakia disbanded its provinces into independent states. of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

The Czech Republic is a developed country with a developed economy, with a high social income. It is a state of affairs with a European social model, global health care and an uneducated university education. It is ranked 12th in terms of population-adjusted growth and 14th in the World Bank Human Capital Index ahead of countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom and France. It becomes the 11th most secure and peaceful country and the 31st in a democratic dispensation. The Czech Republic is a member of NATO, the EU, the OECD, the OSCE and the CoE.

Ancient History

Archaeologists have unearthed evidence of prehistoric human settlements in the area, dating to the Paleolithic period. In ancient times, due to the 3rd century BC the Celtic migration, Bohemia met Boii. Boii established an oppidum near the site of present-day Prague. Later in the first century, the Germanic tribes of Marcomanni and Quadi settled there.

Slavs from the Black Sea – Carpathian Game Reserve live in the area (their migration was driven by invasions from Siberia and Eastern Europe into their territory;  Huns, Avars, Bulgars and Magyars). By the sixth century, the Huns had moved westward to Bohemia, Moravia, and other parts of Austria and Germany.

credit: wikipedia

By the 7th century, the Frankish merchant Samo, supporting the Slavs against the nearby Avars, became the first recorded Slavic emperor in Central Europe, the Samoan Empire. The vastness of Great Moravia, ruled by the Moymir dynasty and dates to the eighth century. It reached its peak at 9 (during the reign of Svatopluk I of Moravia) seizing the Frankish influence. Great Moravia was converted to Christianity, and the role played by Cyril and Methodius’ Byzantine missionaries. They include the Old Church Slavonic language, the original language of Slavic literature and culture and the Glagolitic alphabet.


The Duchy of Bohemia emerged in the late ninth century when it was annexed by the kingdom of Premyslid. Bohemia ran from 1002 to 1806 the Land of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1212, Premysl Ottokar I ousted the Golden Bull of Sicily from the emperor, confirming Ottokar and the royal status of his descendants. The Duchy of Bohemia was raised in the Kingdom. ​​German immigrants settled in the outskirts of Bohemia in the 13th century. The Mongols invaded Moravia during the invasion of Europe but were defeated at Olomouc.

After a series of imperial wars, the House of Luxembourg secured the Bohemian throne.  Efforts to reform the church in Bohemia began in the late 14th century. The followers of Jan Hus broke away from other practices of the Roman Church and the Hussite wars (1419–1434) and won five battles planned for them by Sigismund. Over the next two centuries, 90% of the population of Bohemia and Moravia are considered Hussites. The military philosopher Petr Chelcický encouraged the movement of the Bohemian Brethren (mid-15th century) who had separated themselves from the Roman Catholic Church.

The crown of Bohemia within the Holy Roman Empire
credit: wikipedia

After 1526 Bohemia gradually came under the control of the Habsburgs as the Habsburgs were the first to be elected and in 1627 the Bohemian administrators of Bohemia. Between 1583 and 1611 Prague was the official seat of the Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II and his court. The conquest of Prague and the subsequent uprising of the Habsburgs in 1618 marked the beginning of the Thirty Years’ War. In 1620, the Bohemian rebellion broke out in the White Mountain War and the ties between Bohemia and the Habsburgs heritage site in Austria were strengthened. Bohemian Revolt leaders were assassinated in 1621. Officials and middle-class Protestants were required to convert to Catholicism or leave the country.  In the “dark darkness” of 1620 to the end of the 18th century, the population of the Czech lands declined by a third with the expulsion of Czech Protestants and by war, disease, and famine. The Habsburgs forbade all Christian confession except Catholicism. The flourishing of Baroque culture reflects the ambiguity of this historical period. The Turks and Tatars invaded Moravia in 1663. In 1679-1680 the Czech lands experienced the Great Depression of Vienna and the revolt of serfs. There were poor rebels starved to death. Serfdom was completed between 1781 and 1848. Several Napoleonic Wars took place in the present area of ​​the Czech Republic.

Battle between Hussites and crusaders during the Hussite Wars; Jena Codex, 15th century
credit: wikipedia

The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806 led to the diminishing of the Bohemian political system that lost its electoral status in the Holy Roman Empire and to political representation in the Imperial Diet. Bohemian countries become part of the Austrian Empire. During the 18th and 19th centuries the Czech National Revival began to expand, with the aim of reviving the Czech language, culture and nationality. The 1848 Revolution in Prague, which championed the liberation and independence of the Bohemian Empire within the Austrian Empire, was suppressed.  It looks like more agreements will be reached in Bohemia, but in the end, Emperor Franz Joseph I touched on Hungary’s agreement only. The Austro-Hungarian Treaty of 1867 and the anointing of Franz Joseph as King of Bohemia led to the disappointment of some Czech politicians. The Bohemian Crown became part of the so-called Cisleithania.

Czech Social Democratic and progressive politicians are beginning to fight for universal suffrage. The first election under universal male suffrage was held in 1907.


The First Czechoslovak Republic comprised 27% of the population of the former Austria-Hungary and nearly 80% of the industry
credit: wikipedia

In 1918, during the fall of the Habsburg monarchy at the end of World War I, an independent Czechoslovakia was formed, joining the united states of the United States, led by Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. This new country included the Bohemian crown.

The First Republic of Czechoslovakia had only 27% of the former Austria-Hungary but about 80% of the industry, which made it competitive with Western industrial provinces. In 1929 compared to 1913, total domestic production increased by 52% and industrial production grew by 41%. In 1938 Czechoslovakia ranked 10th in the world in industrial production. Czechoslovakia was the only democracy in Central Europe during the war. Although the First Czechoslovak Republic was a united country, it granted certain rights to its minority.

Prague, Czech Republic – August 21

The Czech territory was occupied by Germany, which turned it into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. The defender was declared part of the Third Reich, and the president and prime minister are under the control of Nazi Germany’s Reichsprotektor. One Nazi concentration camp was located in the Czech underground Terezín, north of Prague. The Nazi Generalplan Ost demanded the extermination, deportation, German occupation or enslavement of many or all Czechs for the purpose of providing more German accommodation. There was Czechoslovak resistance to Nazi rule and Czechoslovak retaliation for their Nazi resistance. The German occupation ended on May 9, 1945, with the arrival of Soviet and American troops and a coup d’état in Prague.

In the 1946 election, the Communist Party received 38% of the vote  and became the largest party in the Czechoslovak parliament, forming alliances with other parties, including power. The coup d’état came in 1948 with the formation of a one-party government. For the next 41 years, the Communist government of Czechoslovak is characterized by certain economic and political elements of the East. The political independence of Prague Spring was halted by the 1968 Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia. Analysts believe that the attack caused the Communist Party to collapse, eventually leading to the 1989 Revolutions.


PM of czech, credit: wikipedia

The Czech Republic is a democratic state that represents many parties. Parliament  has two copies, with the Chamber of Deputies (200 members) and the Senate (81 members). Members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected for a term of four years with limited representation, with an election limit of 5%. There are 14 voting districts, exactly like the administrative districts of the country. The Chamber of Deputies, which followed the Czech National Council, has the powers and responsibilities of the now inactive federal parliament of Czechoslovakia. Members of the Senate are elected from one-seat constituencies by a two-year term, and one-third are elected annually, even in the fall. This provision is being implemented in the U.S. Senate, but each state is equally proportional and the voting system used is a two-circular system.

President of Czech
credit: wikipedia

The president is the official head of state with limited and special powers, appointing the prime minister, and other members of the cabinet on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. From 1993 to 2012, the President of the Czech Republic was elected in a joint parliamentary session for a period of five years, with no two consecutive names (2x Václav Havel, 2x Václav Klaus). Since 2013 the presidential election is straightforward. Government’s exercise of executive authority comes from the Constitution. The members of government are the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Ministers and other ministers. Government is responsible for the Council of Deputies. The Prime Minister is the head of state and exercises powers such as the right to set the agenda for multilateral and domestic policy and to appoint government ministers.


The Czech Republic is a united country with a continental policy system based on the nature of the continent with its roots in German law. The basis of the legal system is the Constitution of the Czech Republic, adopted in 1993. The Penal Code came into effect from 2010. The new Civil Code came into effect in 2014. The court system includes district, district and high courts and is divided into civil, criminal and administrative branches. The Czech court has a triumvirate of high courts. The Constitutional Court has 15 constitutional judges and presides over violations of the Constitution by the Legislature or the government. The Supreme Court is made up of 67 judges and is the highest court of appeal in most of the legal cases heard in the Czech Republic. The Supreme Administrative Court makes decisions in matters of procedural and administrative matters. It also has jurisdiction over certain political issues, such as the formation and closure of political parties, the legal boundaries between government agencies, and the suitability of individuals to represent public office. The Supreme Court and the Supreme Administrative Court are both based in Brno, as well as the Office of the Chief Public Prosecutor.

Current COVID 19 Pandemic status

The COVID-19 epidemic in the Czech Republic is part of a global epidemic of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) caused by acute acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first three confirmed cases in the Czech Republic were reported on March 1, 2020. On March 12, the government declared a state of emergency, for the first time in the modern history of the country. On March 16, the country closed its borders, barred immigrants from entering without a residence permit, and issued an order for everyone to return home. While it was originally scheduled to be operational until March 24, the steps were extended until April 1  and repeated until the end of the State of Emergency  which was extended by the Chamber of Deputies to 30 April 2020 and again until 17 May 2020.

Some of the steps taken by the Czech Republic differ from important factors from other countries. The allotted time for home placement was between March 16th and April 24, even though it had been released several times. In addition to allowing for important purchases and commuting, as in other countries, it also allowed for family visits and unrestricted movement in open parks and open country. The general closure of services and retail sales was in place from March 14th to May 11; however, all stores can continue to sell at public distances with the delivery of temporary windows and the gradual opening of selected stores began with several waves from March 24 onwards. Fear, anger, and despair were the most traumatic reactions that took place in society during the first outbreak of COVID-19 in the Czech Republic. The four most common categories of fear were determined: fear of a negative impact on household finances, fear of a negative impact on other people’s finances, fear of poor health, and fear of inadequate food security. The government did not order the closure of production facilities, but many did so voluntarily during the second half of March, with Hyundai leading the gradual opening from 14 April.

The Czech Republic became the first European country to enforce the wearing of face masks from 19 March onwards. The COVID-19 test was made widely available in driving areas from March 14, and from 27 March anyone with a fever, dry cough or shortness of breath was eligible for free testing.  From 13 April onwards, the experimental dose of COVID-19 exceeded the need. Acquisition of contacts in the country included voluntary disclosure of the mobile phone status and details of bank card payment in recent days and segregation of identified contacts. As of May 1, 2020, a total of 257 COVID-19 deaths have been reported in the Czech Republic compared with 2,719 in the densely populated Sweden, which did not result in a total closure. The Czech Republic began gradually reducing measures from April 7, 2020 onwards and most of the restrictions were lifted on May 11, 2020. However, on November 17, 2020, the Czech Republic recorded a total of 6,416 related and COVID-19 deaths compared to 6 344 in Sweden, which exceeds the death toll in Sweden.

A new variant of COVID-19, Lineage B.1.1.7, emerged in the Czech Republic in January 2021.

In April 2021, the Czech Republic recorded the world’s highest confirmed death toll. There are certain causes. The first is the success of the early closure in March 2020. People felt that nothing bad had happened and that measures, coming at a high price, were unnecessary. This is known as the “success story”. Then during the October 2020 elections, politics did not stop people from breaking borders. The decision was closed in November 2020.


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