Leo Belgicus

Pre-History and Medieval Ages in the Netherlands

Pre-History of the Netherlands(Before 800 BC)

The early history of the area now in the Netherlands is largely shaped by the sea and the rivers that regularly move below. The oldest human (Neanderthal) trails have been found in the highlands, near Maastricht, from what is believed to be about 250,000 years ago. By the end of the Ice Age, the migratory culture of the Upper Paleolithic Hamburg (13.000-10.000 BC) hunted deer in the area, using spears, but later Ahrensburg culture (11.200-9500 BC) used a bow and arrow. From nations such as the Mesolithic Maglemosian (8000 BC) the world’s oldest boat was found in Drenthe.

credit: wikipedia

The late indigenous Mesolithic hunters from Swissterbant culture (5600 BC) were closely related to the Ertebvianlle culture of southern Scandinavia and were closely connected with rivers and open waters. Between 4800 and 4500 BC, the people of Swifterbant began copying animal husbandry from the neighboring Linar Pottery culture, and between 4300 and 4000 BC was an agricultural practice. The Funnelbeaker tradition (4300-2800 BC), associated with the Swifterbant tradition, forms dolls, monuments of large stones found in Drenthe. There was a rapid and smooth transition from the Funnelbeaker farming tradition to the Pan-European Corded Ware pastoralist tradition (2950 BC). To the southwest, the tradition of the Seine-Oise-Marne – related to the tradition of Vlaardingen (2600 BC), a well-known ancient hunter-gatherer tradition – survived the Neolithic period, followed by the Corded Ware Culture.

According to the subsequent Bell Beaker tradition (2700-20000 BC) many origins were exported, mainly to the Iberian Peninsula, the Netherlands and Central Europe. They introduced steel work with copper, gold and copper later and opened international trade routes that had never been seen before, which is reflected in the discovery of copper products, as iron is rare in Dutch soil. The numerous archaeological finds in Drenthe, suggest that it was a trading post in the Bronze Age (2000-800 BC). The Bell Beaker culture grew locally into the Barbed-Wire Beaker culture (2100-1800 BC) and later the Elp culture (1800-800 BC), the Middle Bronze Age archeological tradition with fine pottery. low as a marker. The first stage of the Elp process was characterized by tumuli (1800-1200 BC) which was largely bound to modern tissues in northern Germany and Scandinavia and was apparently related to the Tumulus culture in central Europe. The next stage was to burn the dead and bury their ashes in burial pits, according to Urnfield tradition (1200-800 BC). The southern region was ruled by a related Hilversum culture (1800-800 BC), which seemed to have found a connection with Britain’s earlier Barbed-Wire Beaker culture.

History

History of Netherlands
Credit: RACM & TNO, CC BY-SA 3.0 <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/>, via Wikimedia Commons

The Netherlands is the most common country in Western Europe and partly in the Caribbean. The largest country in the four states of the Netherlands. In Europe, the Netherlands has twelve provinces, bordering Germany on the east, Belgium on the south, and the North Sea on the northwest, and the territories of the North Sea and those countries and the United Kingdom.  In the Caribbean, it consists of three special municipalities: the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba. The official language of the country is Dutch, with West Frisian as the second official language in the province of Friesland, and English and Papiamento as the second official languages ​​in the Caribbean Netherlands. Dutch Low Saxon and Limburgish are respected regional languages ​​(spoken east and southeast respectively), while Sinte Romani and Yiddish are well-known non-native languages.

The four largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht. Amsterdam is a densely populated city with a designated capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General, Cabinet and Supreme Court. Rotterdam Harbor is the most port in Europe, and is the busiest in the world except East Asia and Southeast Asia, after only China and Singapore. Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is the busiest airport in the Netherlands, and the third busiest in Europe. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as part of the Schengen Area and trilateral Benelux Union. It has many governmental organizations and international courts, many of which are located in the heart of The Hague, the so-called ‘legal capital of the world’.

The Netherlands literally means “low countries” in terms of its low elevation and spatial study, which is only about 50% of its land area more than one meter (3 ft 3 in) above sea level, and about 26% falls below the coast. Many coastal areas, known as polders, are the result of land reform dating back to the 14th century. In combination or informally the Netherlands is sometimes referred to as pars pro toto Holland. With a population of 17.4 million, all living on an area of ​​41,800 square kilometers (16,100 sq mi) —a land area of ​​33,500 square kilometers (12,900 sq mi) – the Netherlands is the 12th most populous country in the world and the second largest in the world the most populous in the European Union, with a population of 521 square kilometers (1,350 / sq mi). However, it is the second largest supplier in the world of food and agricultural products, due to its fertile soil, low climate, intensive agriculture and innovation.

The Netherlands has been a parliamentary monarchy with a unified structure since 1848. The country has a history of anointing and a long history of social tolerance, as it has officially aborted, prostitution and murder, and maintained an open drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in the Civil War in 1870, although it was not abolished until a new constitution was approved in 1983. The Netherlands allowed women to take up the profession in 1919, before the world’s first gay marriage was legalized in 2001. Its diversified market economy had the highest eleven per capita income worldwide. The Netherlands ranks among the world’s top companies for media freedom, economic freedom, human growth and quality of life, and happiness. In 2019, it was ranked tenth in human development index and fifth in the 2019 World Happiness Index.

Medieval Ages

Leo Belgicus
Credit: Joannes van Deutecum, Claes Jansz Visscher

After the fall of the Roman government in the area, the Franks expanded their territories to several empires. By 490s, Clovis I had conquered and occupied the southern part of the Netherlands in one Frankish kingdom, and from there he continued his conquest to Gaul. During this expansion, the Franks migrated south eventually using the local Vulgar Latin. The increase in cultural diversity grew as the Franks remained in their first northern country (e.g. the Netherlands in the south of Flanders), continuing to speak Old Frankish, which in the ninth century converted to Old Low Franconian or Old Dutch. Thus there was a border between the Dutch and French languages.

To the north of the Franks, the climate improved, and during the Migration Period Saxons, the closely related Angles, Jutes and Frisian landscaped coastal lands. Many migrated to England and became known as Anglo-Saxons, but those who remained were to be called Frisians and their language as Frisians, after the Frisian world. Frisian was spoken throughout the southern coast of the North Sea, and it is still the most closely related English language among the living languages ​​of the European continent. In the seventh century the Frisian empire (650-734) under King Aldegisel and King Redbad emerged with Utrecht as its center of power, while Dorestad was a thriving commercial center. Between 600 and about 719 cities were often at war between the Frisians and the Franks. In 734, at the Battle of the Boarn, the Frisians were defeated after several battles. With the approval of the Franks, Anglo-Saxon missionary Willibrord converted Frisians to Christianity. He founded the Archdiocese of Utrecht and became bishop of the Frisians. However, Boniface’s successor was assassinated by the Frisians at Dokkum, in 754.

The Frankish Carolingian Empire imitated itself after the Roman Empire and dominated much of Western Europe. However, in 843, it was divided into three parts – East, Central, and West Francia. Most of the modern-day Netherlands became part of the Middle Francia, which was a weak and subdivided state and undermined by its powerful neighbors. It had territories from Frisia in the north to the Italian Empire in the south. About the year 850, Lothair I of Middle Francia recognized the Viking Rorik of Dorestad as ruler of much of Phrygia. When the Middle East was divided into 855, the northern Alps moved to Lothair II and were later called Lotharingia. After his death in 869, Lotharingia was divided into Upper and Lower Lotharingia, the latter part of the Commonwealth, which became part of East Francia in 870, although dominated by the Vikings, invading the unprotected Frisian and Frankish coastal cities and rivers.

High medieval ages

A History of Hut Reconstructions in the Netherlands
Credit: https://exarc.net/ark:/88735/10489

The Holy Roman Empire (the country next to East Francia and then Lotharingia) dominated the Southern Hemisphere in the 10th and 11th centuries but was unable to maintain political unity. Powerful local dignitaries transformed cities, regions, and flowers into independent states that felt no obligation to the emperor. Holland, Hainaut, Flanders, Gelre, Brabant, and Utrecht were in a state of constant war or confusing human unions. Language and culture The majority of the people living in the Dutch region were originally Frisians. As the Frankish territory continued from Flanders and Brabant, the area soon became Old Low Franconian (or Old Dutch). The remnants of the northern Frisian (now Friesland and Groningen) continued to maintain their independence and established their own institutions (collectively called “Frisian independence”), which did not require the inclusion of a monarchy system.

About the year 1000 AD, as a result of several agricultural developments, the economy began to grow rapidly, and high productivity allowed workers to cultivate more land or become traders. Cities grew up around monasteries and castles, and the middle class of mercantile began to grow in these urban areas, especially in Flanders and later in Brabant. Wealthy cities began to purchase certain privileges from the king. By doing so, this meant that Brugge and Antwerp became independent republics and in time became the most important cities and ports in Europe.

About 1100 AD, farmers in Flanders and Utrecht began cultivating and cultivating wetlands in the western part of the Netherlands, making the County of Holland a powerhouse. The title of Count of Holland was fought in the Hook and Cod Wars (Dutch: Hoekse en Kabeljauwse twisten) between 1350 and 1490. The Cod team had progressive cities, while the Hook group had respected members. The dignitaries invited Governor Philip Okuhle of Burgundy – also a County of Flanders – to conquer Holland.

Geography and Geology

credit: wikipedia

According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, the Netherlands of Europe has a total area of ​​41,545 km2 (16,041 sq mi), including bodies of water; with an area of ​​33,481 km2 (12,927 sq mi). The Caribbean Netherlands has a total area of ​​328 km2 (127 sq mi). Between 50 ° and 54 ° N, and 3 ° and 8 ° E. The Netherlands is geographically low compared to the sea and is considered a flat country, with approximately 26% of its area and 21% of its population located below sea level, and only about 50% of its land area. one meter above sea level. Part of the European country is largely flat, with the exception of the hills to the far southeast, up to a height of no more than 321 meters, and some low mountains in the central parts.

The present-day Netherlands was formed as a result of the confluence of four major rivers and the influence of the North Sea. The Netherlands is largely made up of marine, coastal and eolian creatures during the Pleistocene glacial and interglacial times. Almost the entire Western Netherlands is made up of the Rhine-Meuse river, but human intervention has profoundly altered the natural processes at work. Most of the western part of the Netherlands is under coastal because of the human process of converting standing bodies of water into a utility the polder.

Floods

The Saint Elizabeth’s Day Flood, Master of the St Elizabeth Panels, Anonymous, c.1490-c.1495
Credit: http://dutchdikes.net/history/

Over the centuries, the Dutch coast has changed dramatically as a result of natural disasters and human intervention.

On December 14, 1287, the flood of St. The flood of St. Elizabeth’s 1421 and the reckless management after it destroyed the newly restored polder, and flooded 28-kilometer (28 sq mi) floodplains in Biesbosch in the south-central. The Great North Sea flood in early February 1953 caused many canals in the southwest of the Netherlands; more than 1,800 people drowned in the floodwaters. The Dutch government then launched a major program, “Delta Works”, to protect the country from the coming flood, which was completed in more than three decades.

To prevent flooding, a series of waterproofing systems were developed. In the first millennium AD, villages and agricultural fields were built on man-made hills called torches. Later, these bones were connected by canals. In the 12th century, local government agencies called the “waterschappen” (“water boards”) or “hoogheemraadschappen” (“top local councils”) first appeared, their function was to maintain water quality and protect the region from floods; these structures continue to exist. As the soil level decreases, the dikes necessarily grow and are consolidated into an integrated system. By the 13th century, windmills were used to pump water out of the ocean floor. Fans were later used to clear lakes, forming famous polders.

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