Myanmar or Burmese officially the Republic of Myanmara country in Southeast Asia. Myanmar is bordered by Bangladesh and India to its northwest, China to its northeast, Laos and Thailand to its east and southeast, and the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal to the south and southwest. Myanmar is the largest country in Mainland Southeast Asia and the 10th largest in Asia by region. As of 2017, the population was about 54 million. Its capital is Naypyidaw and its largest city is Yangon (Rangoon).
The earliest civilizations in Myanmar include the Tibetan-Burman-speaking Pyu regions of Upper Burma and the Mon kingdoms of Lower Burma. By the 9th century, the people of Bamar had invaded the northern region of Irrawaddy, and after the establishment of the Pagan Empire in the 1050’s, Burmese language, culture, and Theravada Buddhism gradually gained ground. The Pagan empire fell into the hands of the Mongols, and many warring nations emerged. In the 16th century, reunited with the Taungoo dynasty, the country became the largest empire in the history of South Asia. The first 19th-century Konbaung dynasty ruled the territory that included modern-day Myanmar and briefly ruled Manipur and Assam. The British East India Company took control of Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese wars in the 19th century, and the country became a British colony. After a brief occupation by the Japanese, Myanmar was again annexed by the Allies and liberated in 1948. After the overthrow in 1962, it became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Program Party.
Over the years of its independence, the country has been plunged into a deep-seated ethnic conflict and many of its ethnic groups have been involved in the world’s longest running civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and other organizations have reported on human rights abuses in the country. In 2011, a military junta was officially dissolved after the 2010 national election, with the establishment of a democratically elected government. This, together with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and political prisoners, had improved the country’s human rights record and foreign relations and led to a decline in trade and other economic sanctions. There is, however, further criticism of the government’s treatment of minority groups, its response to racial segregation, and religious conflict. In the 2015 elections, Aung San Suu Kyi’s party won a landslide victory in both houses. However, the Burmese military remained politically active, and, on February 1, 2021, recaptured the coup d’etat.
Biodiversity and Climate
Myanmar is a land of wildlife with over 16,000 plants, 314 mammals, 1131 birds, 293 insects, 139 species of aquatic animals, and 64 global systems including tropical and subtropical vegetation, seasonal wetlands, coastal and maritime areas, and high-altitude ecosystems. Myanmar has some of the largest natural habitats in Southeast Asia, but the rest of the world is under threat of increased land use and overuse. According to the IUCN Red List of ecosystems more than a third of Myanmar’s land area has been transformed into an anthropogenic environment over the past two centuries, and almost half of its ecosystem is threatened. In addition to the vast expanses of biodiversity, there is a great potential for creating a secure environment network that protects its biodiversity.
Myanmar continues to perform poorly on the global Environmental Performance Index with an average of 153 out of 180 countries in 2016; among the worst places in the South Asian region, just before Bangladesh and Afghanistan. The EPI was established in 2001 by the World Economic Forum as a global measure of how well each country is doing well in implementing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. The areas where Myanmar’s worst offenses (i.e., the highest level) are air quality (174), health impacts of environmental problems (143) and biodiversity and habitat (142). Myanmar is doing very well (i.e., the lowest position) on the effects of the fishery on the environment (21) but on the reduction of fish stocks. Despite a few setbacks, Myanmar is also rated at 64 and benefits the most (eg 93.73%) from the environmental impact of the agricultural sector due to its excellent nitrogen cycle management. Myanmar is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change; this poses many social, political, economic and foreign policy challenges.  The country had the 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index with a score of 7.18 / 10, which ranks the 49th in the world in the 172 countries.
Much of the country is located between Tropic of Cancer and Equator. It is found in the Asian rainforest region, and its coastal regions receive more than 5,000 mm (196.9 in) of rainfall annually. The annual rainfall in the delta region is about 2,500 mm (98.4 in), while the average annual rainfall in the arid region of central Myanmar is less than 1,000 mm (39.4 in). The northern regions of Myanmar are extremely cold, with moderate temperatures of 21 ° C (70 ° F). Coastal and mountainous regions have an average temperature of 32 ° C (89.6 ° F).
Political, Economical and Social Issues
Major problems include widespread poverty and underdevelopment; lack of administrative and institutional capacity; a system of governance that continues to lack accountability and transparency, ethno rebel organizations that have not yet made full peace with the state.
The Environmental, Political and Social Issues highlight the educational, historical and social contexts in Myanmar strongly suggest that, after decades of neglect of education, the time has come to transform education in schools. The world’s most important questionnaire for the learning environment (What Happens At This Grade?) Is used to look at how staff can facilitate the improvement of classrooms in Myanmar, and how educational researchers in Myanmar can conduct previous research in other countries.
Next, the authors explore the current state of environmental management and natural resources in Myanmar to address key needs, challenges and opportunities, and identify areas for improvement. Current environmental laws, environmental resource policy measures, and natural resource management frameworks are reviewed, and policy recommendations are made.
The closure review highlights Myanmar’s sustainable waste management approach considering the effective waste management practices in other Asian countries. In addition, the authors highlight the current trends, issues and challenges of Myanmar’s waste management systems.
World Report 2021
The general human rights situation in Myanmar is deteriorating by 2020, including restrictions on freedom of speech and peaceful assembly. Fighting between Myanmar’s troops and several armed groups continued, with government forces inflicting heavy casualties on the people of Kachin, Karen, Rakhine, Rohingya, and Shan. Harassment of soldiers and police has intensified through illegal arrests, detention, torture and death in custody.
On August 25, three years have passed since security forces launched a crackdown on racism and crime against the Rohingya people in Rakhine State, leaving several hundred Rohingya in Myanmar and another 740,000 people fleeing to neighboring Bangladesh. Myanmar has not made any significant progress in resolving this issue, or in providing the victims and the victims with justice. The court findings of the three suspects in the Rohingya cases show the government’s ongoing efforts to evade sensible self-defense, to deport a few lower-ranking soldiers rather than to thoroughly investigate military leadership that directs and monitors violent crimes.
International pressure is mounting on governments to co-operate with UN human rights investigators, including UN Special Investigator Thomas Andrews and the Independent Investigative Mechanism for Myanmar (IIMM), in response to allegations of human rights abuses by ethnic groups. The International Court of Justice unanimously ordered Myanmar to step up its efforts to protect the Rohingya people from assassinations as the Gambian case against Myanmar’s violation of the Holocaust continues. The court also authorized regular reports from the Gambia and Myanmar on compliance with Myanmar, although these reports remain confidential.
The purpose of the 2008 Burmese constitutional referendum, held on 10 May 2008, is to build a “morally healthy democracy”. As part of the referendum process, the country’s name was changed from “Union of Myanmar” to “Republic of the Union of Myanmar”, and national elections were held under the new constitution in 2010. Viewers’ accounts of the 2010 election describe the event as a great silence; however, allegations of irregularities arose at the polling station, with the United Nations (UN) and many Western countries criticizing the election as fraudulent.
The military-backed Union Solidarity and Development Party declared victory in the 2010 election, saying it had approved 80 percent of the vote; however, the claim was disputed by several opposition groups supporting the democratic claim that the military regime had committed a rampant crime. One report recorded 77 percent as the official turnout for voters. The military council was dissolved on March 30, 2011.
Opinions differ as the transition to democracy continues. According to some reports, the military presence continues as the “directed democracy” label suggests. The label testifies that Burmese soldiers allow for some civil liberties while concealing Burmese political involvement. Such an assertion assumes that change only takes place when the military is able to defend its interests through reform – here, “reform” does not refer to open democratic change but to a military state.
Since the 2010 elections, the government has embarked on a series of reforms to lead the country to democracy, a mixed economy, and reconciliation, although doubts remain about the motives behind those changes. The series of reforms includes the release of democratically elected leader Aung San Suu Kyi from house arrest, the establishment of the National Human Rights Commission, the granting of amnesty to more than 200 political prisoners, new labor laws allowing trade unions and strikes, freedom of the press, and freedom of the press. of financial practices.
Coup And Reaction in Elections
Early on the morning of February 1, 2021, the day when parliament was due to convene, the Tatarms, Myanmar troops, arrested State Counsel Aung San Suu Kyi and other members of the ruling party. The military handed over power to military commander Min Aung Hlaing and declared a state of emergency for one year and began to close borders, blocking travel and electricity communications across the country.
The military has announced that it will replace the current electoral commission and replace it with a new one, with the media announcing that new elections will be held within a year – even though the military was avoiding legitimacy.
State Adviser Aung San Suu Kyi and President Win Myint were detained in the house, and soldiers began filing various charges against them. The military expelled MPs from the NLD party in the capital, Naypyitaw. On March 15, 2021 the military leadership continued to extend military law in areas beyond Yangon, while security forces killed 38 people in one day of violence.
On the second day of the coup, thousands of protesters marched through the streets of the largest city in the country, and the commercial capital, Yangon, and other protests erupted nationwide, mainly halting trade and transportation. Although soldiers were arrested and killed by protesters, in the early weeks of the coup it gained increasing public participation, including groups of civil servants, teachers, students, workers, nuns, and religious leaders – often with minority ethnic groups.
The protests were quickly criticized by the UN Secretary-General, as well as democratic leaders – including United States President Joe Biden, Western European political leaders, Southeast Asian democracies, and others around the world, who demanded or called for the release of hostages. , and a rapid return to Myanmar democracy. The U.S. It has threatened sanctions on the military and its leaders, including the “cold” US $ 1 billion of their U.S. assets.
Russia and China – whose representatives had spoken to Tatmadaw leader General Hlaing a few days before the protests – stopped criticizing it. This seems to be the problem for Myanmar protesters. However, both nations did not hold back from resolving the UN Security Council’s decision to release Aung San Suu Kyi and other imprisoned leaders – a position shared by the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. Development partners and donors – business, non-governmental, and government – have called for the suspension of relations with Myanmar. Banks are closed. Social media platforms, including Facebook and Twitter, have deleted Tatmadaw’s post. The protesters appeared at Myanmar’s embassies abroad.
Although foreign relations, especially with Western countries, have been historically weak, the situation has improved since the changes following the 2010 elections. After years of political segregation and economic and military sanctions. The United States reduced foreign aid restrictions in Myanmar in November 2011 and announced the resumption of political relations on 13 January 2012 . The European Union has imposed sanctions. in Myanmar, including the ban on arms, the suspension of trade preferences, and the suspension of all aid without human assistance. Former United Nations Secretary-General U Thant (1961-1971)
The sanctions imposed by the United States and European countries against the former military government, coupled with strikes and other direct corporate pressures by pro-democracy activists, have led to the withdrawal of a majority of U.S. corporations. As well as in many European companies. On April 13, 2012, British Prime Minister David Cameron called for Myanmar’s economic sanctions to be lifted after the Democratic Party won 43 of the 45 seats in the 2012 by-elections with party leader Aung San. Suu Kyi becomes a member of the Burmese parliament.